Islam’s Tolerance with non-Muslims

All praise is to Allah, Thou we worship, Thou we seek for forgiveness and refuge from our sins. No one will guide whom Allah sends astray, and no one will mislead whomever Allah guides. And I bear witness that there is no deity but, Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

There is a wealth of evidence from Qur’an and Sunnah indicating Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims. This is even emphasized by non-Muslims such as Orientalist Bernard Lewis, who said, “Muslims’ tolerance with Christians who reside in Muslim countries indicates that Muslims are far more tolerant than Christians.” (2). Thomas Arnold said, “Arabs’ tolerance made a lot of people convert to Islam.” (3). Victor Sahab said, “Christians who were subjected to an ever-increasing oppression were saved by Islamic conquest, and were given the choice of either converting to Islam or keeping their religion under Muslims’ protection. Thus, the Egyptian church, which escaped from Byzantine massacres, returned to practice its rituals publically after the Islamic conquest, in a time when all countries banned any religion other than their religion.” (4).

This research cites evidence from the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him, which demonstrate Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims. These evidences were taken from the following resources:

1. “The Six Books” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Nasa’i), Al-Muwatta, Al-Darimi, the Signs of Prophecy by Abu Nu’aim, Al-Bayhaqi, and the Mustadrak by Al-Hakim.

2. Al-Matalib Al-Aliah by Ibn Hajar, Majma’ Al-Zawa’id by Al-Haithami, Ittihaf Al-Kheirah by Al-Busairi, and Saheeh Ibn Haban’s additions entitled “Mawarid Al-Tham’an.”

3. “Al-Musannaf” by Ibn Abi Shaybah, “Al-Musannaf” by Abdul-Razzaq As-San’ani, “Al-Mu’jam” by Bin Almuqri’, “The Beginning and the End” by Ibn Katheer, Ibn Hajar’s Hadith Encyclopedia, and Albani’s books.

4. Hadith graded authentic by Al-Albani.

5. Weak Hadith narrations were deleted

6. I collected more than 370 Hadiths.

7. I indicted each Hadith’s narrator, and his book.

8. I enlisted the most prominent narrators’ names.

9. I mentioned some Hadith’s benefits.

The research has been arranged to indicate the following:

Part I:

Introduction:

– Islam urges Muslims to be tolerant with non-Muslims.

– Islam is a religion of guidance.

– Tolerance in belief and worship.

– Tolerance with treaty-makers.

– The sanctity of People of the Book and treaty-makers’ lives.

– The sanctity of their property and honor.

– Oppressing them is impermissible.

– Treaty commitment.

– Giving alms to impoverished People of the Book is permissible.

– Arbitration among treaty-makers.

– Acceptance of non-Muslims’ testimony.

– Acceptance of their intercession in some cases.

– The verdict of greeting and shaking hands with a non-Muslim.

– Greeting idolaters.

– The permissibility of treating them with generosity.

– The permissibility of eating the People of the Book’s sacrifices.

– To deal with them in buying, selling, and other transactions.

– To learn their science and language.

– The treatment of a non-Muslim patient.

– The right of a non-Muslim neighbor.

– Visiting non-Muslims.

– Praying for them.

– Interacting with non-Muslims.

– Giving them gifts and accepting their gifts.

– Keeping ties with non-Muslim relatives.

– Approval of the People of the Book.

– Consoling and burying treaty-makers.

– Inheritance and wills.

– Marriage with the people of the book.

– Hadiths about them.

– Treating them well.

– Accepting their invitations.

– Liberating them.

– Pardoning them.

– Justice.

– Manifestations of tolerance in Jihad.

– Manifestations of tolerance in the tribute.

Part II: This section includes jurisprudential verdicts derived from Hadith and practical examples which demonstrate Islam’s tolerance.

This research also includes an index of the Prophet’s Hadiths, and a general index.

Part I

Introduction:

Islam is a tolerant religion that came to relieve humans of their previous burdens and obligations, as Allah said, “And relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them.” [Al-‘Araf: 175]. He also said, “Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews, and them constantly hindering from Allah’s Path, We forbade them good things which were (before) made lawful unto them.” [Al-Nisa: 160]. Allah also said, “Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error! Our Lord! Lay not on us such a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us! Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear! Pardon us, absolve us and have mercy on us. Thou art our Protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving folk.” [Al-Baqarah: 286]. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Leave me as long as I leave you, for the people who were before you were ruined because of their questions and their differences over their prophets.” (6). He also said, “I was sent with tolerant monotheism.” (7).

Moreover, Allah bestows His Mercy on all humans whether they are believers or disbelievers, obedient or disobedient, as Allah said, “My mercy encompasses all things.” [Al-‘Araf: 156] (9-10). The prophet, peace be upon him, said, “The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He who is in the heaven will show mercy to you.” (11). Ibn Hajar said (12), “Ibn Battal said (13), ‘This compassion is bestowed upon all creatures, believers, infidels, and animals.'” (14). On the other hand, Allah does not show mercy towards the unmerciful, whether they are believers or a disbelievers, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Allah will not show mercy to he who shows no mercy to other people.” (15).

Also, Allah urged Muslims to look after Muslim and non-Muslim orphans and promised them paradise, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I and the one who looks after an orphan will be like this in Paradise,” (showing his middle and index fingers and joining them). (16-17).

Furthermore, Allah’s Mercy is even bestowed upon animals and birds, as Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud out of excessive thirst. The man said, ‘This dog is suffering from the same problem as I was.’ So he went down the well, filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up and gave the water to the dog. Allah thanked him for his deed and forgave him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving animals?” He replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any creature.” (18). He also said, “A prostitute saw a dog moving around a well on a hot day and hanging out its tongue because of thirst. She drew water for it in her shoe and she was pardoned.” (19).

Abdul-Rahman Bin Abdullah narrated that his father said, “Once we were on a journey with the Prophet and he had gone to relieve himself. We saw a sparrow with two young ones and we took them. The sparrow then came and began to spread out its wings. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, came and said, ‘Who has pained this bird by the loss of her children? Give her children back to her.’ We burned an ant hill. He asked, ‘Who burned this?’ We replied, ‘We did.’ He said, ‘It is not fitting that anyone but the Lord of the fire should punish with fire.'”(20-21). Also, Ibn Omar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “A woman went to Hell for tormenting a cat; she locked it inside didn’t feed it, nor let it out so that it could hunt for its own food.” (22).

Likewise, there are various Hadiths urging Muslims to be merciful and tolerant with non-Muslims. Here are a few:

1. Abu Hurairah reported that someone said to Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, “Invoke Allah’s Curse upon the polytheists.” He said, “I have not been sent as an invoker of curses; I have been sent as a mercy.” (23).

2. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The people of Mecca asked the Messenger to make Safa out of gold, and to remove mountains so that they could plant crops. Allah said, ‘If you wish, we will give them what they asked for, but if they disbelieve We will obliterate them. Or if you wish, We will grant them respite.’ He said, ‘Grant them respite.’ Then Allah revealed this verse, ‘And nothing prevented us from sending signs except that the former peoples denied them. And we gave Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign.'” [Isra: 59] (24).

3. Al-Bayhaqi narrated in “The Signs of Prophecy” (2/272), “And if you wish I will open the door of repentance and mercy to them.” The Messenger of Allah said, “Then open the door of repentance and mercy to them.”

4. Aisha once asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “Did you encounter a day harder than the day of the battle of Uhud?” The Prophet replied, “Your people have troubled me a lot, and the worse trouble was on the day of ‘Aqaba when I presented myself to Ibn `Abd-Yalail bin `Abd-Kulal and they did not respond to my request. So I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and proceeded on, and could not relax till I found myself at Qarn al-Tha’alib where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Gabriel in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s saying to you, and what they have replied back to you. Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The Angel of the Mountains called and greeted me, and then said, ‘O Muhammad! Order what you wish. If you like, I will let the two mountains fall on them.’ The Prophet said, ‘No. I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone, and will worship none besides Him.’ (25). Thus, these Hadiths demonstrate Islam’s immense tolerance, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to supplicate against the infidels and asked Allah to guide them, though they tormented him.”

5. Abdullah said, “Quraysh refused to obey the Prophet, so he asked Allah to afflict them with years of famine similar to those of Prophet Joseph. So they were stricken with famine and fatigue, so much so that they ate even bones. A man would look towards the sky and imagine seeing something like smoke between him and the sky because of extreme fatigue. So Allah revealed, ‘Watch for the Day when the sky will bring a visible smoke, covering people; this is a painful torment.’ [Al-Dukhan: 10-11] Then Abu Sufyan came to the prophet and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger, invoke Allah to send rain for the tribes of Mudar for they are on the verge of destruction.’ So the Prophet said, ‘For the tribes of Mudar? Verily, you are a brave man!’ But the Prophet prayed for rain and it rained for them. Then the Verse was revealed, ‘But truly you will return (to disbelief).’ [Al-Dukhan: 15]. But when prosperity and welfare was restored, they reverted to their ways of heathenism, whereupon Allah revealed, ‘On the Day when We shall seize you with a Mighty Grasp. We will indeed exact retribution.’ [Al-Dukhan :16] The narrator said, ‘That was the day of the Battle of Badr.'” This hadith also indicates Islam’s mercy, for the Prophet prayed for them despite their constant abuse against Muslims.

6. Abu Hurairah said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, sent some horsemen to Najd. They captured a man from the tribe of Banu Hanifa named Thumamah Bin Uthal and bound him to one of the pillars of the mosque. Then the Prophet came out to see him and said, ‘O Thumamah, what do you think?’ He replied, ‘Muhammad, I have good opinion of you. If you kill me, you will kill a person who has spilt blood. If you do me a favor, you will do a favor to a grateful person. If you want wealth, ask and you will get what you will demand.’ The Messenger left him for two days, and came to him again and said, ‘O Thumamah, What do you think?’ He replied, ‘What I have already told you.’ Then the Messenger said, ‘Set Thumamah free.’ Once free, Thumamah went to a palm-grove near the mosque and took a bath. Then he entered the mosque and said, ‘ I bear witness that there is no true god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant and His Messenger. O Muhammad, by Allah, there was no face on the earth more hateful to me than your face, but now your face has become to me the dearest of all faces. By Allah, there was no religion more hateful to me than your religion, but now your religion has become the dearest of all religions to me. By Allah, there was no city more hateful to me than your city, but now your city has become the dearest of all cities to me. Your horsemen captured me when I intended to go for Umrah, Now what is your opinion in the matter? ‘The Messenger announced good tidings to him and told him to go on Umrah. When he reached Mecca, somebody said to him, ‘Have you changed your religion? He said: No! I have rather embraced Islam with the Messenger, peace be upon him. By Allah, you will not get a single grain of wheat from Yamamah until it is permitted by the Messenger of Allah.'”

7. Ibn Hisham added, “Then he went out to Al-Yamamah and prohibited them from carrying anything to Mecca, so they wrote to the Messenger, ‘You asked us to keep in touch with our relatives, yet you cut our ties’, then the Messenger wrote to him.”(28). Ibn Hajar said, “Thumama’s story demonstrates the Prophet’s mercy on the infidel captive. Therefore, it is permissible to be kind and tolerant with infidel war captives, for they might convert to Islam.”

8. Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Messenger, peace be upon him, said, “By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, Allah bestows His Mercy only upon the merciful.” His Companions replied, “O Messenger of Allah, we are all merciful.” He said, “I do not mean the one who has mercy on his friend, but who is merciful with all people.” (29).
Islam is the religion of guidance

Islam is the guidance for mankind, as Allah said about the People of the Book, “If only the People of the book would believe and ward off (evil), surely we should remit their sins from them and surely We should bring them into Gardens of Delight. If they had observed the Torah and the Gospel and that which was revealed unto them from their Lord, they would surely have been nourished from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them there are people who are moderate, but many of them are of evil conduct.” [Al-Maeda: 65-66]. Allah also said, ‘It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for mankind, with clear proofs of guidance, and as a Criterion.” [Al-Baqarah: 185]. “This Qur’an guides to that which is most suitable.” [Al-Isra: 9]. “We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and whoso follows My Guidance shall neither fear nor grieve. But they who disbelieve and deny our revelations shall be inhabitants of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.” [Al-Baqarah: 39].

The following Hadiths indicate the keenness of Islam to guide all people:

9. Abu Hurairah narrated that At-Tufail Bin ‘Amr came to the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of Allah, the tribe of Daws has disobeyed and refused to embrace Islam, so invoke Allah’s Wrath upon them.” But He said, “O Allah, guide the tribe Of Daws and let them come to us.” (30). Thus, it is permissible to pray for infidels’ guidance. (31-32).

10. Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “Allah’s Messenger wrote to Caesar to invite him to Islam. He sent the letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi, whom he ordered to hand it over to the Governor of Busra, who would forward it to Caesar. As a sign of gratitude to Allah, Caesar had walked from Homs to Jerusalem when Allah granted Him victory over the Persian forces. So, when the letter of the Prophet reached Caesar, he read it then said, ‘Summon one of his people, so I can ask him about Allah’s Messenger.'” (33)

11. Abdullah Bin Abbas said, “Abu Sufyan Bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraysh. They were merchants doing business in Syria, at the time when the Prophet had truce with Abu Sufyan and the Quraysh infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Jerusalem. Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. Heraclius’s translator said to them, “Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?” Abu Sufyan replied, “I am the nearest relative to him.” Heraclius said, “Bring him close to me and make his companions stand behind him.” Abu Sufyan added, “Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding the Prophet and that if I told a lie my companions should contradict me.” Abu Sufyan added, “By Allah, had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was: ‘What is his family status amongst you?’ I replied, ‘He belongs to a noble family amongst us.’ Heraclius asked, ‘Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?’ I replied, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius asked, ‘Do the nobles or the poor follow him?’ I replied, ‘It is the poor who follow him.’ He said, ‘Are his followers increasing decreasing?’ I replied, ‘They are increasing.’ He then asked, ‘Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius said, ‘Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim to be a Prophet?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius said, ‘Does he break his promises?’ I replied, ‘No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.’ I could not find any opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, ‘Have you ever had a war with him?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ Then he said, ‘What was the outcome of the battles?’ I replied, ‘Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we were.’ Heraclius said, ‘What does he order you to do?’ I said, ‘He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our kith and kin.'”

“Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following: ‘I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing; your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man’s statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king; your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah. I then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. All Prophets have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and left his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and this is (the sign of) true faith when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Messengers never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.’ Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah’s Messenger which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: “In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. (This letter is) from Muhammad the Servant and Messenger of Allah to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your peasants. I recite to you Allah’s Statement, ‘O People of the Book, come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: bear witness that we are Muslims.'” Abu Sufyan then added, “When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn Abi Kabsha: the Prophet Muhammad has become so prominent that even the Byzantine King is afraid of him. Then I become sure that the Prophet would be the conqueror in the near future and I embraced Islam.”

The sub narrator added, “Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of Jerusalem and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Syria. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting Jerusalem he got up in the morning and was sad. Some of his priests asked him why he felt sad. Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, ‘Last night, when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had become the conqueror.’ The people replied, ‘Who are they who practice circumcision? Aside from the Jews nobody practices circumcision. You should not be afraid of them. Just issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.’

While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah’s Messenger to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, Heraclius ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. After seeing him, the people told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, ‘Arabs also practice circumcision.’ After hearing that, Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as knowledgeable as himself. He then left for Homs and stayed there until he received the reply to his letter from his friend, who agreed that the man who had appeared amongst the Arabs was indeed a Prophet. Heraclius then invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble at his palace in Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the gates of his palace be locked. Then he came out and said, ‘O Byzantines! If you want success and seek guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet.’ Upon hearing the views of Heraclius, the people ran towards the gates of the palace and found them locked. Heraclius realized that they hated Islam and lost hope of them embracing the faith. He then ordered them to be brought back in audience. When they returned, he said, ‘What I said was just a test to see the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.’ The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius’s story.”

Al-Nawawi said (35): “This story demonstrates that we must invite disbelievers to Islam before we fight them. This also indicates that it is permissible to address non-Muslims with names that show reverence to encourage them to convert to Islam as the Prophet, peace be upon him, did with Hercules.”

12. Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Chosroes (the King of Persia), Caesar, Negus and every other despot inviting them to Islam. This Negus was not the one for whom the Prophet, peace be upon him, performed the funeral prayers. (37). Al-Nawawi said, “This Hadith indicates that it is permissible to write to non-Muslims and invite them to Islam.” (38).

13. Anas Bin Malik said, “When the Prophet intended to write to the Byzantines, it was said to him, ‘Those people will not read your letter unless it is stamped.’ So the Prophet took a silver ring and had ‘Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’ engraved on it. It is as if I am looking at its glitter in his hand now.” (39). This Hadith indicates that we must use what non-Muslims use in their writings when inviting them to Islam.

14. Abu Hurairah said, “While we were in the mosque, the Prophet came out and said, ‘Let us proceed to the Jews.’ So we went out with him till we came to Bait Al-Midras. The Prophet stood up there and called them, saying, ‘O assembly of Jews! Convert to Islam and you will be safe!’ They said, ‘You have conveyed Allah’s Message, O Abul-Qasim.’ The Prophet then said to them, ‘That is what I want. Embrace Islam and you will be safe.’ They said, ‘You have conveyed the message, O Abul-Qasim.’ The Prophet then said to them, ‘That is what I want. ‘” (40).

15. Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet stood up when the following was revealed to him: ‘And warn your closest kindred,’ and said, ‘O Quraysh! Buy your souls from your Lord, I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Banu ‘Abd Manaf! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O ‘Abbas Bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Safiyyah, aunt of the Messenger of Allah! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Fatimah! Ask me for whatever you want, I cannot avail you anything before Allah.'” (41).

16. Ibn Abbas said, “When the Qur’anic Verse: ‘Warn your nearest kinsmen’ was revealed, the Prophet started calling the various big families of Quraysh: ‘O Bani Fihr! O Bani Adi!'” Abu Hurairah said, “When the Verse: ‘Warn your nearest kinsmen’ was revealed, the Prophet said (in a loud voice), ‘O people of Quraysh!'” These Hadiths indicate the Prophet’s tolerance, peace be upon him, in inviting his people to Islam.

17. Ibn Omar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “O Allah! Glorify Islam with one of these two men dearest to you: Abu Jahl or Omar Ibn Al-Khattab.” He also said, “Omar was the dearest to him.” (43). This Hadith indicates that it’s permissible to pray for non-Muslim to convert to Islam.

18. Anas Bin Malik narrated that Zayd ibn Thabit said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, looked towards Yemen and said, ‘O Allah make their hearts come to us (i.e.: let them convert to Islam).’ He then looked towards Syria and said, ‘O Allah makes their hearts to come to us.’ He then looked towards Iraq and said, ‘O Allah make their hearts to come to us, and bestow your blessing upon our food.'” (44).

19. Jabir said, “They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, the bows of Thaqeef have burnt us, so invoke Allah’s wrath upon them.’ He Said, ‘O Allaah, guide Thaqeef.'” (45). These Hadiths demonstrate Islam’s tolerance, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked Allah to guide them instead of invoking Allah’s wrath on them.

20. Sahl Bin Sa’d said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said on the day of the Khaybar battle, ‘Tomorrow I will give the flag to somebody who will be given victory and who loves Allah and His Prophet and is loved by Allah and His Prophet.’ That whole night everyone wondered who would receive the flag hoped to be that person. In the morning, the Prophet asked, ‘Where is `Ali?’ He was told that `Ali was suffering from eye-trouble, so he applied saliva to `Ali’s eyes and invoked Allah to cure him. `Ali was immediately cured as if he had no ailment to begin with. The Prophet then gave him the flag. `Ali said, ‘Should I fight them till they become like us?’ The Prophet said, ‘Go to them patiently and calmly till you enter the land. Then invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels.'” (46). Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith directs us to invite non-Muslims to Islam instead of killing them.”(47).

21. Anas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Bakr Bin Wa’el and said, “From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to the Bakr Bin Wa’el. Accept Islam and you shall be safe.” Then Anas said, “This letter was read by only one man of them from Bani Dabia.” (48).

22. Abu Burda heard his father say that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There are three who will be given a twofold reward: a man who has a slave woman whom he treats well and teaches well, then he manumits her and marries her – such a person will get a double reward; and a believer from the People of the Book who has been a true believer and then he believes in the Prophet – such a person will get a double reward; and a slave who observes Allah’s Rights and Obligations and is sincere to his master.” (49). These two Hadiths indicate the keenness of Islam on calling the People of the Book to Islam made by multiplying their reward if they accept the faith.

23. Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Waleed Bin Mughirah came, then the Messenger, peace be upon him, recited the Qur’an to him, and he was convinced. Then Abu Jahl said, ‘Your people will give you money if you oppose Muhammad.’ He said, ‘But I’m the wealthiest of Quraysh.’ He said, ‘Then at least say something that proves that you oppose him.’ He said, ‘What am I supposed to say? I am one of most knowledgeable in poetry, but I’ve never hear a thing as sweet and charming as these verses.’ He said, ‘Your people will never be pleased with you until you say something bad about him.’ He then said, ‘I think this is mere magic that affects people.’ Then Allah revealed, ‘Leave Me (to deal) with him whom I created lonely, and then bestowed upon him ample means, and sons abiding in his presence.'” (50). This Hadith demonstrates Islam’s virtues, which Walid bin Mugirah – who was not a Muslim – approved of.

24. Al-Dahhak Bin Nu’man said, “Masruq Bin Wa’el converted to Islam and said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I would like you to send a letter to my tribe inviting them to Islam.’ He said to Muawiyah, “Write for him.” Muawiya wrote, “In the name of Allah the Merciful. To the people of Hadramout: pray and give alms.” (52). This indicates Islam’s keenness to guide non-Muslims.

25. Said Bin Musayyib said, “When Abu Talib’s death approached, the Prophet went to him while Abu Jahl and `Abdullah Bin Abu Umayyah were present with him. The Prophet said, ‘O uncle, say: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, so that I may argue for your case before Allah.’ Then Abu Jahl and `Abdullah Bin Abu Umayyah said, ‘O Abu Talib! Do you want to renounce `Abdul-Muttalib’s religion?’ Then the Prophet said, ‘I will keep on asking forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden to do so.’ Allah revealed, ‘It is not befitting for the Prophet and those who believe to seek forgiveness for the polytheists – even if they be close relatives – after it has become clear that they are inhabitants of the hellfire.'” (53).

26. Mu’ath Bin Jabal narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “O Mu’ath, if Allah gives guidance to the people of shirk through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels.” (54).

27. ‘Uqbah Bin ‘Amir Al-Juhani narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Paradise is the reward of anyone who guides another man to Islam.” (55).

28. Sahl Bin Sa’d reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Proceed and do not hurry. When you enter their territory, call them to embrace Islam and inform them of Allah’s Rights which they should observe, for by Allah, even if Allah guides a single man through your efforts, that would be better for you than red camels.” (56).

29. Al-Bayhaqi narrated in “Al-Dala’il” (2/308), that Yunus Ibn Ishaq said: This is a letter from the Messenger of Allah to Negus: “Peace be upon those who follow guidance, believe in Allah and His Messenger, and bear witness that there nothing is deserving of worship except Allah alone with no partner nor son, and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. I extend to you the invitation to accept Allah’s call, for I am His Messenger. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. ‘O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah. But if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ [Al-Imran: 64]. If you reject Islam, you will be responsible for the sins of your Christian people.” (Hadith Mursal).

30. Al-Zuhri reported that Abdullah Bin Abdul-Qari’ said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a letter with Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah to Cyrus, the King of Alexandria. He accepted the letter, honored Hatib, and sent to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a present of cloths, a mule, and two maids; one of them is the mother of his son Ibraham, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the other to Muhammad Bin Qais Abdi.” (57).

31. Hatib said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent me to Cyrus, the King of Alexandria and I gave him the Prophets’ letter. I stayed at his home and he said to me, ‘I would like to ask you something.’ I said, ‘What would you like to ask me about?’ He said, ‘Isn’t your friend a prophet?’ I said, ‘Yes, he is a prophet.’ He said, ‘Then why didn’t he invoke Allah’s wrath on his people when they exiled him from his town?’ I said, ‘Do you bear witness that Jesus son of Mary is the Messenger of God?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why didn’t he invoke Allah’s wrath on his people when his people when they were about to crucify him.’ He told me, ‘You are a wise man who was sent by a wise man, deliver these gifts to Muhammad.’ He gave the Prophet, peace be upon him, two maids; one of them is the mother of his son Ibrahim, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the other to Muhammad Bin Qais Abdi.” (58). This narration indicates that we must gently invite others to Islam, and accept non-Muslims’ gifts.

32. Ishaq Bin Yasar said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Rakanah Ibn Al-Muttalib, ‘O Rakanah, why do you not fear Allah, and accept what I invite you to?’ He said, ‘I would follow you, if I confirmed that what you call for is the right path.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘What if I defeated you, would realize that what I call for is the right path?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Stand up so that I can wrestle you.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, defeated him and Rakanah said, ‘O Muhammad, this is a wonder that you managed to defeat me!’ He said, ‘If you wish, I will show something that is even more wondrous, if you fear Allah and follow my call.’ He said, ‘What?’ the Prophet said, ‘I will summon this tree that you see, and it will come to me.’ He said, ‘Summon it.’ The Prophet summoned the tree and it came to him, then he said to it, ‘Go back to your place.’ It went back, and then Rakanah went back to his people and told them about what he saw.” (59).

33. Tirmidhi narrated that Ibn Rakanah said, “Rakanah wrestled the Prophet, peace be upon him, and the Prophet defeated him.” Al-Tirmidhi said, “This is a strange Hadith, for we do not know Ibn Rakanah.” (60).

34. Ibn Ishaq said, “Obaidullah Bin Mughira and Abdullah Ibn Hazm narrated that As’ad Bin Zararah went with Mus’ab Bin Omair to Bani Ashal and Bani Zafar’s house, then Sa’d Bin Mu’ath said to Asid bin Hudayr – who were non-Muslims at the time – ‘Don’t let these two men who came to belittle us proceed to our house.’ Asid went to them and said, ‘What brings you here? Leave us alone, you just came to belittle us.’ Mus’ab said to him, ‘Just listen to what I have to say.’ He then sat down, and Mus’ab told him about Islam, and recited some verses from the Qur’an. Then Asid said, ‘This religion is so great, how can one convert to this religion?’ They said to him, ‘Wash your clothes, declare the testimony of faith, and then pray.’ He did so then went to Sa’d, and Sa’d said to him, ‘What happened to you?’ He said, ‘They agreed to go back if I listened to what they had to say, so I listened to them and they convinced me to convert to Islam.’ Raging with fury, Sa’d Bin Mu’ath took a spear in his hand and went to them. Then they said to him, ‘Just listen to what we have to say.’ He then sat down, and Mus’ab and As’ad told him about Islam and recited some verses from Surah Al-Zukruf. Then Sa’d converted to Islam and went back to his people and said, ‘O Bani Abdul-Ash’al, do you realize who I am?’ They said, ‘Our master and our leader.’ He said, ‘I will never listen to any word you utter, until you believe in Allah and His Messenger.’ Then the Bani Abdul-Ash’al tribe converted to Islam.” (61). This story demonstrates that calling others gently to Islam will make a lot of people convert to Islam.

35. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “People are like ores. Those who were excellent in the Days of Ignorance are excellent in Islam provided they acquire the knowledge and understanding of the religion.” (62). Al-Nawawi said, “This means that those who are morally upright in the Days of Ignorance, will be the best of people provided they acquire understanding of the religion.” (63). Ibn Hajar said, “Just like ores, honor never changes. Thus, Islam makes an honorable person even more honorable.” (64).

36. Sa’id Ibn Abi Burdah said, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, Mu’ath to Yemen, and said, “Show leniency; don’t be hard upon them; give them glad tidings; and do not create aversion. Work in collaboration and don’t disagree.” (65).

37. Zayd Ibn Aslam narrated that his father said, “Once when we were in Syria, I brought water for Omar Bin Al-Khattab to make ablution with. He said, ‘Where did you bring this fresh and sweet water from?’ I said, ‘From the house of an old Christian lady.’ Omar went to her and said, ‘O old woman, accept Islam and you will be safe.’ She revealed her head and said, ‘I am an old lady on the verge of death.’ Omar said, ‘O Allah bear witness.'” (66).

38. Adi Bin Hatim said, “I used to detest the Prophet, peace be upon, but I decided to go to him to see for myself whether he was a liar or a real prophet. When I came him, he said, ‘O Adi Bin Hatim, convert to Islam and you will be safe.’ I said, ‘But I am from the People of the Book.’ He said, ‘I know your religion better than you do.’ I said, ‘You know my religion more than I do?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet said, ‘Aren’t you a Christian?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Aren’t you a leader among your people?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Don’t you take the forth of the spoils of war?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘This is not permissible in your religion, O Adi bin Hatim. Accept Islam and you will be safe. I think what prevents you from converting to Islam is the privation of those you see around me, and you see that everyone is collaborating against us. Have you been to Hiira?’ I said, ‘No, but I know where it is.’ He said, ‘If you should live for a long time, you will certainly see that a lady will safely travel without an escort from Al-Hira and perform the Tawaf, and the treasures of Khosrau will be taken as spoils (he repeated this three times), and rich men will find no one to give alms to.’ Adi said, ‘I saw a lady traveling from Al-Hira till she performed the Tawaf without an escort. I was one of those who conquered the treasures of Khosrau, son of Hurmuz. And you will soon witness the third thing that the Prophet, peace be upon him, told me about.'” (67).

39. Abu Thar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You will soon conquer Egypt, which is known as ‘the Land of the Carat.’ When you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well, for they enjoy a covenant and kinship with you. When you see two people amongst them falling into dispute for the space of a brick, leave that land.” Then Abu Thar said, “I saw Abdul-Rahman Bin Shurahbil Bin Hasanah and his brother Rabi’ah disputing with one another for the space of a brick so I left that land.”

40. Suwaid said, “We once went to Abu Thar in Rabadha and he had a mantle over him, and his slave had one like it. We said, ‘Abu Thar, had you joined them together, it would have been a complete garment.’ Thereupon he said, ‘There was an altercation between me and one of my brothers. His mother was a non-Arab. I insulted his mother. He then complained to the Prophet, peace be upon him, who said to me, ‘Abu Thar, you are a person who still has the remnants of the days (of Ignorance).’ Thereupon I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, people usually insult the father and mother of the one who insults others. The Prophet said, ‘Abu Thar, you are a person who still has the remnants of Ignorance in him. Your servants are your brothers. Allah has put them in your care, so feed them with what you eat, clothe them with what you wear, and do not burden them beyond their capacities; but if you burden then, then help them.'” (88).

The following Hadiths emphasize that the bloodshed of treaty-makers is impermissible:

41. Abdullah Bin Amr narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years.”

42. Abu Bakrah narrated, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Allah will forbid Paradise to anyone who kills a treaty-maker with no justification.” (96). Another narration by Abu Bakrah states that the Messenger of Allah said, “Allah will forbid Paradise to anyone who kills a treaty-maker with no justification; he will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise.” (97).

43. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker with a covenant from Allah His Messenger has violated the covenant with Allah His Messenger, so he shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even though its fragrance can be sensed from the distance of seventy autumns.” (100).

44. Abdullah Bin ‘Amr said, “The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Whoever kills a treaty-maker will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, and its fragrance may be detected from a distance of forty years.” (101).

45. Al-Qasim Bin Al-Mukhaimirah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, although its fragrance may be detected from a distance of seventy years.” (102).

46. Ibn Shihab said, “Abu Bakr and Omar, may Allah be pleased with them, made the compensation for killing treaty-makers the same as the ransom for killing a Muslim.” (110).

47. Amru Bin Shuaib said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “The blood money for a man who makes a covenant is half of the blood money for a free man.” (111). However, the scholars differed in the matter of the blood money for Jews and Christians. Some scholars held that it is the same as the blood money for Muslims, while others held that it is the half of the blood money for Muslims. It was narrated from Omar Ibn Al-Khattab that he said, “The blood money for Jews and Christians is four thousand dirhams, and Magi’s blood money is eight hundred dirhams.” Malik Bin Anas, Shafi’i and Ishaq held this opinion, while Sufyan Al-Thawri and the people of Kufa held that the blood money for Jews and Christians is the same as that of Muslims.

48. Sufyan Ibn Hussein Al-Zuhri said, “Ibn Shas Al-Juzami killed a man from Syria, then Uthman Ibn Affan ordered to kill him, but Zubayr and some of the Companions stopped him from killing him, so he made him pay a ransom of a thousand dinars.”

49. Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyib said, “The blood money for Jews and Christians is a thousand dinars.” (112).

50. Anas said that a Jewish man was assassinated, then Omar Bin Al-Khattab made his blood money twelve thousand dirhams. (113).

51. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab wanted to shackle one of his companions who wounded a man of the People of the Book. The Muslims said, “You shouldn’t do this.” Omar said, “It is better to shackle those with weak minds.” (114). All the above mentioned Hadiths and stories emphasize that it is impermissible to kill treaty-makers, and that blood money must be paid by whoever kills them.

52. Jabir said, “We never killed non-Muslim merchants at the time of the Messenger, peace be upon him.” (115).

The Hadiths that indicate sanctity of Non-Muslims’ property and honor are as follows:

53. Abdur-Rahman Bin Abu Bakr said, “Once one-hundred and thirty people were accompanying the Prophet and he asked us whether anyone of us had food. There was a man who had a few handfuls of wheat mixed with water. Suddenly a very tall non-Muslim came driving sheep. The Prophet asked him, ‘Will you sell us a sheep or give us one as a gift?’ He said, ‘I will sell you one.’ The Prophet bought a sheep and it was slaughtered. He ordered that its liver and intestines be roasted. By Allah, the Prophet gave every one of the one-hundred and thirty people a piece of meat; he gave all those of them who were present and kept the shares of those who were absent. The Prophet then put its meat in two huge basins and all of them ate to their fill, and even then more food was left in the two basins which were carried on a camel.” (116).

The following Hadiths emphasize the sanctity of non-Muslims’ property and money:

54. Arabad As-Salimi said, “We went to Khyber with the Prophet, peace be upon him, then the ruler of Khyber came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘O Muhammad, are you going to slaughter our cattle, eat our crops and hit our women?’ The Prophet got angry and said, ‘O Ibn Auf, ride your horse and inform the people that Paradise is only for the believers, and command them to gather for prayer.’ They gathered and prayed with the Prophet, peace be upon him, and then he stood up and said, ‘One of you reclining on his couch may recon that Allah did not forbid anything except what is forbidden in this Qur’an. By Allah, I have preached, and ordered, and forbidden things that are like the Qur’an or more. And Allah does not permit you to enter the houses of the People of the Book without permission, nor hit their women, nor eat their crops, if they pay what they are obligated to.” (117). This Hadith emphasizes the sanctity of the wealth and honor of the People of the Book.

55. The sons of the Companions narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I shall argue against anyone who oppresses, insults, overburdens, or takes something unwillingly from a treaty-maker.” (118). This Hadith indicates that it is not permissible to oppress treaty-makers.

56. Miqdam Bin Yakrib narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I have been given the Qur’an and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say, ‘Hold onto the Qur’an; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited.’ It is not permissible for you to eat the domestic donkey, lions, beasts with fangs, or findings belonging to treaty-makers, unless their owners do not want them.” (119). This Hadith demonstrates the sanctity of the blood, honor and wealth of treaty-makers.

57. Ibn Abi Rawad said, “An army passed by a farm of the People of the Book and allowed their cattle to graze from the farm, except for one man who withheld his sheep. Then the farmer said to him, ‘They have been forgiven because of what you have done.'” (120). This story indicates that trespassing on the property of the People of the Book incurs Allah’s wrath.

58. Juhayna narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You might fight people and conquer them; then they will protect themselves and their children with their money, and make a pact with you, so do not ask for more than that; for it does not befit you.” (121).

59. Khalid Bin Al-Waleed, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I went with the Prophet, peace be upon him, to fight at the battle of Khaybar, and the Jews came and complained that the people had hastened to take their protected property, so the Prophet said, ‘The property of those who have been given covenants is not permissible for you, nor are mules, fanged beast of prey, or birds with a talons.'” (122).

60. Abu Hurairah said, “I heard Abul-Qasim (the Prophet) say, ‘If a man accuses his slave of adultery and the slave is innocent, the man will be flogged on the Day of Resurrection.” (123). Al-Zuhri said, “If somebody accuses a Jew or a Christian of adultery, he must be punished.” (124).

61. Ikrima said, “If I were a ruler, I would punish anyone to slander a Jew or Christian.” (125).

62. Ammar Ibn Yasir narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whosoever unjustly hits his slave will get his retribution in the Day of Resurrection.” (126). All the above Hadiths demonstrate that it is not permissible in Islam to oppress or harm non-Muslim or Muslim slaves.

The following Hadiths show the impermissibility of harming non-Muslims:

63. Urwah Ibn Zubair said, “Hisham Ibn Hakim saw some of the People of the Book standing in the sun and said, ‘Who are they?’ They said, ‘Treaty-makers.’ He then said to Amir Bin Sa’d, ‘I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say, ‘Whosoever tortures people in this world, will be tortured by Allah in the Hereafter. ‘” (127).

64. Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Beware of the supplication of the oppressed as there is no screen between their supplication and Allah.” (129).

65. Abu Hurairah said, “Once a Jew was selling something and was offered a price he was not pleased with. So, he said, ‘No, by Him who gave Moses superiority over all human beings!’ Upon hearing him, an Ansari man got up and slapped him on the face and said, ‘You say: by Him who gave Moses superiority over all human beings, although the Prophet Muhammad is present amongst us!’ The Jew went to the Prophet and said, ‘O Abul-Qasim, I am under the assurance and contract of security, so what right does he have to slap me?’ The Prophet asked the other, ‘Why did you slap him?’ He told him the whole story. The Prophet became angry and said, ‘Don’t give superiority to any prophet amongst Allah’s Prophets, for when the trumpet is blown, everyone on earth and in the heavens will fall unconscious except those whom Allah exempts. The trumpet will be blown a second time and I will be the first to be resurrected, only to see Moses holding Allah’s Throne. I will not know whether the unconsciousness which Moses received on the Day of Tur was sufficient for him, or if he will have gotten up before me. I do not say that there is anybody better than Yunus Bin Matta.” (130).

The following Hadiths emphasize that Muslims must fulfill their covenants:

66. Abdul-Rahman Bin ‘Auf narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I witnessed The Mutaibeen Alliance as a boy with my uncles and would not like to break it even if I were given red camels.” (131). Ibn Hajar said, “This was an alliance that took place in pre-Islamic days.” (132).

67. Jabir bin Mutim narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There is no alliance in Islam, but Islam only strengthens the alliances established in the pre-Islamic days.”

68. Amr Ibn Shu’ayb narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Fulfill the oaths of your slaves.” (133).

69. Huthaifah Bin Al-Yaman said, “What stopped me and Abu Hussail from participating in the battle of Badr is that we promised some of the people of Quraysh only to go to Madina and not fight with the Prophet. When we told the Prophet, peace be upon him, about that, he said, ‘You are excused; we will fulfill their oath and ask Allah to support us against them.” (134).

70. Al-Miswar Bin Makhramah and Marwan said, “The Prophet, set out at the time of the Treaty of Hudaibiya, and when they proceeded for a distance, he said, ‘Khalid Bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh constituting the front of the army at a place called Al-Ghamim, so take the way on the right.’ By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims till the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, and then he turned back hurriedly to inform Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniya mountainous way, through which one would go to the people of Quraysh. The camel of the Prophet sat down, and people tried their best to make it get up but they failed, so they said, ‘Al-Qaswah (the camel’s name) has become stubborn! Al-Qaswah has become stubborn!’ The Prophet said, ‘Al-Qaswah has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him who stopped the elephant.’ Then he said, ‘By the Name of Him in Whose Hands my soul is, if Quraysh ask me anything respecting the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them.’ The Prophet then rebuked the camel and it got up. The Prophet changed his way till he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaibiya at a well containing a little water which the people used in small amounts; after a short while the people used up all its water and complained to the Prophet of thirst. The Prophet took an arrow out of his arrow-case and ordered them to put the arrow in that well. By Allah, the water started and continued sprouting out till all the people quenched their thirst and returned with satisfaction. While they were still in that state, Budail Bin Warqa Al-Khuzai came with some persons from his tribe (from the area of Tihamah); they were the advisers of the Prophet and would keep no secret from him. Budail said, ‘I left Ka’b Bin Luai and Amir Bin Luai residing at the profuse water of Al-Hudaibiya, and they will wage war against you, and prevent you from visiting the Kaba.’ The Prophet said, ‘We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform Umrah. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people, and if I have victory over those non-belivers, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish; they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause till I die, but Allah will definitely make His Cause victorious.’ Budail said, ‘I will inform them of what you have said.’ So he set off till he reached Quraysh and said, ‘We have come from Muhammad, whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you if you like.’ Some of the fools among Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, ‘Relate what you heard him saying.’ Budail told them what he heard then Urwah Bin Masud got up and said, ‘O people! Aren’t you the sons?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He added, ‘Am I not the father?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you mistrust me?’ They said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Don’t you know that I invited the people of Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me, to help you?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Well, Muhammad has offered you a reasonable proposal; you’d better accept it and allow me to meet him.’ They said, ‘You may meet him.’ So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet told him almost the same as he had told Budail. Then Urwah said, ‘O Muhammad! Won’t you feel any scruple in extirpating your relatives? Have you ever heard of anyone amongst the Arabs extirpating his relatives before you? On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, nobody will aid you, for, by Allah, I do not see with you dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.’ Hearing that, Abu Bakr said, ‘Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet alone?’ Urwah said, ‘Who is that man?’ They said, ‘That is Abu Bakr.’ `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, ‘By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would retort on you.’ Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet’s beard as he was talking while Al-Mughirah Bin Shu`ba was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet, and whenever Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say to Urwah, ‘Remove your hand from the beard of the Prophet.’ Urwah raised his head and asked, ‘Who is that?’ The people said, ‘That is Al-Mughirah Bin Shu`ba.’ Urwah said, ‘O treacherous! Am I not doing my best to prevent the evil consequences of your treachery?’ Before embracing Islam Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people and killed them then took their wealth and came to Medina to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him, ‘As regards your Islam, I accept it, but as for the wealth, I do not take anything of it.’… Urwah returned to his people and said, ‘O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and Negus, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his companions. Urwah added, ‘No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.’ A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, ‘Allow me to go to him.’ They allowed him, and when he approached the Prophet and his Companions, the Prophet said, ‘He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the camels; bring the camels in front of him.’ So, the camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, ‘Glorified be Allah, it is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.’ When he returned to his people, he said, ‘I saw the camels with colored knotted ropes and marked with stabs on their backs. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`ba.’ Another person called Mikraz Bin Hafs got up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said, ‘Here is Mikraz; he is a vicious man.’ Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and, as he was talking, Suhail bin `Amr came and the Prophet said, ‘Now the matter has become easy.’ Suhail said to the Prophet, ‘Please conclude a peace treaty with us.’ So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, ‘Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.” Suhail said, ‘As for ‘the Beneficent,’ by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously.’ The Muslims said, ‘By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.’ The Prophet said, ‘Write: By Your Name, O Allah.’ Then he dictated, ‘This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger, has concluded.’ Suhail said, ‘By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad Bin Abdullah.’ The Prophet said, ‘By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad Bin Abdullah.’ (Al-Zuhri said, “The Prophet accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they demanded as long as it respected the ordinances of Allah.”) The Prophet said to Suhail, ‘On the condition that you allow us to visit the Ka’bah so that we may perform Tawaf around it.’ Suhail said, ‘By Allah, we will not allow you this year, so as not to give chance to the Arabs to say that we have yielded to you, but we will allow you next year.’ So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhail said, ‘We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.’ The Muslims said, ‘Glorified be Allah! How will such a person be returned to the pagans after he has become a Muslim?!’ While they were in this state Abu Jandal Bin Suhail bin `Amr came from the valley of Mecca staggering with his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims. Suhail said, ‘O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you (i.e. you shall return Abu Jandal to me).’ The Prophet said, ‘The peace treaty has not been written yet.’ Suhail said, ‘I will never allow you to keep him.’ The Prophet said, ‘Yes, do.’ He said, ‘I will not.’ Mikraz said, ‘We allow you to keep him.’ Abu Jandal said, ‘O Muslims! Will I be returned to the disbelievers though I have come as a Muslim?! Don’t you see how much I have suffered?!’ Omar Bin Al-Khattab said: I went to the Prophet and said, ‘Aren’t you truly the messenger of Allah?’ The Prophet said, ‘Yes, indeed.’ I said, ‘Isn’t our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be disgraced in our religion?’ He said, ‘I am Allah’s Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.’ I said, ‘Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it?’ He said, ‘Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.’ Omar further said: I went to Abu Bakr and said, ‘O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be disgraced in our religion?’ He said, ‘Indeed, he is Allah’s Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and Allah will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, he is on the right path.’ I said, ‘Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it?’ He said, ‘Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘You will go to Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.’ (Al-Zuhri said, “Umar said, ‘I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.'”) When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah’s Messenger said to his Companions, ‘Go sacrifice your animals and shave your heads.’ By Allah, none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salama hand told her of the people’s attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don’t say a word to anybody till you have sacrificed your animal and called your barber to shave your head.’ So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that. Seeing that, the Companions of the Prophet got up, sacrificed their animals, and started shaving the heads of one another, and they were in such a rush that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came to the Prophet and Allah revealed the following Divine Verses: ‘O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, test their faith.’ (60:10). Omar then divorced two wives of his who were non-Muslims. Later on Muawiyah Bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan Bin Umaiyyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Medina, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from Quraysh, came to him. The infidels sent in his pursuit two men who said to the Prophet, ‘Abide by the promise you gave us.’ So the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out of the city till they reached Thul-Hulaifah, where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, ‘By Allah, I see you have a fine sword.’ The other drew it out and said, ‘By Allah, it is very fine and I have used it many times.’ Abu Basir said, ‘Let me have a look at it.’ When the other gave it to him, he struck him with it and killed him, and his companion ran away till he reached Medinah and entered the Mosque running. When Allah’s Messenger saw him he said, ‘This man appears to have been frightened.’ When he reached the Prophet he said, ‘My companion has been murdered and I was nearly murdered too.’ Abu Basir came and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by your returning me to them, but Allah has saved me from them.’ The Prophet said, ‘Woe to his mother! What excellent war kindler he would be, if he only had supporters.’ When Abu Basir heard that he understood that the Prophet would return him to them again, so he set off till he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal Bin Suhail escaped from them and joined Abu Basir. Whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam, he would follow Abu Basir till they formed a strong group. Whenever they heard about a caravan of Quraysh heading towards Syria, they attacked it, killed everyone in it, and took their belongings. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the Sake of Allah to send for Abu Basir and his companions, promising that whoever amongst them came to the Prophet would be secure. So the Prophet sent for them and Allah revealed the following Verses, ‘And it is He Who withheld their hands from you and your hands From them in Mecca, after He made you the victorious over them. And Allah sees all that you do. It is them who disbelieved and prevented you from reaching the Sacred Mosque while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. Were it not for believing men and women whom you did not know you might trample – and there would befall you because of them dishonor without your knowledge – [you would have been permitted to enter Mecca]. [This was so] that Allah would allow to enter into His Mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart, We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with a painful torment. When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts the chauvinism of the [pre-Islamic] Days of Ignorance.” (48: 24-26). Their pride and haughtiness was what made them refuse to write in the treaty that Muhammad was the Messenger of Allah and that Allah is the most Beneficent and Most Merciful; this is also what made them prevent the Muslims from visiting the Ka’bah.

71. Salim Bin Amir said, “Mu’awiyah signed a treaty with the Romans, but set out to fight them since the treaty was coming to an end. Then Amr Bin Absa came and said, “Fulfillment rather than treachery… I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say, ‘He who signs a treaty between him and people must not break it until it ends, or throw it back at them (break it if they initiated treachery).’ Mu’awiyah retreated after hearing that.” (138).

72. Sa’d Bin Abi Waqqas said, “When the Prophet, peace be upon him, came to Madinah, the tribe of Juhaynah said to him, ‘You are going to live amongst us, so let’s make an oath whereby we can trust you and you can trust us in return.’ He said, ‘Let’s make an oath.’ Yet they didn’t accept Islam.” (139).

73. Suraqah said, “I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, in [a place named] Jaranah and some of Ansar hit me on the head as I was passing. I complained to the Prophet, who had given me an oath of safety a while ago. He then said, ‘Yes, today is the day of fulfillment, righteousness and truth.'” (140).

74. Abdullah Ibn Omar said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, came to us and said, ‘O immigrants, you may be afflicted by five things; God forbid that you should live to see them. If fornication should become widespread, you should realize that this has never happened without new diseases which people’s forefathers never suffered from befalling the people. If people should begin to cheat in weighing out goods, you should realize that this has never happened without drought and famine befalling the people, and their rulers oppressing them. If people should withhold alms, you should realize that this has never happened without the rain being stopped from falling; and were it not for the animals’ sake, it would never rain again. If people should break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, you should realize that this has never happened without Allah sending an enemy against them to take some of their possessions by force. If the leaders do not govern according to the Book of Allah, you should realize that this has never happened without Allah making them fight one another.'” (141).

75. Na‘im said, “When he read Musaylimah’s letter, I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say to the two messengers who delivered the letter, ‘What do you say?’ They said, ‘Just as he said.’ He replied, ‘If Allah didn’t forbid Prophets from killing, I would have stricken your necks [with my sword].'” (142). This Hadith shows that it is impermissible to harm and assault ambassadors and messengers.

76. Abu Rafi’ said, “Quraysh sent a letter about me – asking to return the messenger they sent to the Prophet, peace be upon him. The love of Islam had been placed in my heart so I said to the Prophet, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I swear I will never go back to them.’ He said, ‘I do not break covenants nor withhold messengers. Go back to them. If your heart still feels the way it does now when you reach them, you may return to us.’ I went back to them, and then returned to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.” (146).

77. Bushair bin Yasar said, “Abdullah Bin Sahl and Muhayyisah Bin Mas’ud, who were both Ansar belonging to the tribe of Banu Haritha, set out to Khaibar during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him. There was peace during those days and this place was inhabited by the Jews. They parted and Abdullah Bin Sahl was killed. Muhayyisah found his dead body and buried him then returned to Medinah. Abdur-Rahman Bin Sahl, Muhayyisah and Huwayyisah told the Prophet about Abdullah’s murder. He said to them, ‘Take fifty oaths and you will be entitled to the blood money of your companion.’ They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we neither saw this murder nor were we present there.’ Thereupon the Prophet said, ‘Then the Jews will exonerate themselves by taking fifty oaths.’ They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how can we accept the oath of disbelieving people?’ So Allah’s Messenger paid the blood money himself.” (149). This Hadith emphasizes that the Prophet, peace be upon him, didn’t accuse the Jews of a murder that no one witnessed since they were treaty-makers.

78. Abdullah Bin Al-As narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Four are the qualities which, when found in a person, make him a sheer hypocrite, and one who possesses one of them, possesses one characteristic of hypocrisy until he abandons it. These are: when he is entrusted with something, he betrays trust; when he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he acts treacherously; and when he argues, he behaves in a very imprudent, insulting manner.” (152). Ibn Hajar said, “Betrayal is forbidden, whether the treaty is with a Muslim or a treaty-maker.” (153).

79. Anas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon, him said, ”Every betrayer will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection.” One of the two sub narrators said that the flag would be fixed, and the other said that it would be shown on the Day of Resurrection, so that the betrayer might be recognized by it.” (155).

80. Abu Sa’id narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Everyone who breaks a covenant will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection. It will be raised higher according to the nature of his breach. Behold, there will be no greater sin with respect to breaking the covenant than that of a ruler who breaks his covenant with the Muslim masses.” (156). Al-Nawawi said, “These Hadiths emphasize the prohibition of breaking treaties and covenants, especially by rulers, because their treachery can harm lots of people.” (157).

81. Jabir narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “No idolater shall enter our mosque after this year, except for the people with covenants and their servants.” (158).

82. Asim ibn ‘Ubayd narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever breaks a covenant and dies as a covenant breaker will come on the Day of Resurrection with no excuse.” (159).

83. Aisha said, “Since my earliest memories, my parent always worshipped according to the true faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Messenger visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant. When he reached a place called Bark Al-Ghimad, he met Ibn Ad-Daghna, the chief of the Qara tribe, who asked Abu Bakr, ‘Where are you going?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘My people have driven me out of my homeland and I want to travel and worship my Lord.’ Ibn Ad- Daghna said, ‘A man like you will not leave nor be driven out as you help the poor earn their living, keep good ties with your kith and kin, help the needy, provide guests with food and shelter, and help people during their troubles. I am your protector. So, go back and worship your Lord at your home.’ Ibn Ad-Daghna went along with Abu Bakr and took him to the chiefs of Quraysh saying to them, ‘A man like Abu Bakr will not go out, nor will he be turned out. Do you turn out a man who helps the poor earn their living, keeps good relations with kith and kin, helps the needy, provides guests with food and shelter, and helps the people during their troubles?’ So, Quraysh allowed Ibn Ad-Daghna’s guarantee of protection and told Abu Bakr that he was secure, and said to Ibn Ad-Daghna, ‘Advise Abu Bakr to worship his Lord in his house, to pray and read what he likes, not to bother us and not to do these things publicly, for we fear that our sons and women may follow him.’ Ibn Ad-Daghna told Abu Bakr of all that, so Abu Bakr continued worshipping his Lord in his house and did not pray or recite Qur’an aloud except in his house. Later on, Abu Bakr wished to build a mosque in the courtyard of his house. He fulfilled this wish and started praying and reciting Qur’an there publicly. The women and the children of the pagans started gathering around him and looking at him in amazement. Abu Bakr was a softhearted person and could not help but weeping while reciting Qur’an. This horrified the pagan chiefs of Quraysh. They sent for Ibn Ad-Daghna and when he came, they said, ‘We have given Abu Bakr protection on condition that he worships his Lord in his house, but he has transgressed this condition and has built a mosque in the courtyard of his house and offered his prayer and recited Qur’an in public. We are afraid lest he mislead our women and children. So, go to him and tell him that if he wishes he can worship his Lord in his house only, and if not, then tell him to return your pledge of protection as we do not like to betray you by revoking your pledge, nor can we tolerate Abu Bakr’s public declaration of Islam. Ibn Ad-Daghna came to Abu Bakr and said, ‘You know the conditions on which I gave you protection, so you should either abide by those conditions or revoke my protection, as I do not like to hear the Arabs saying that Ibn Ad-Daghna gave the pledge of protection to a person and his people did not respect it.’ Abu Bakr said, ‘I revoke your pledge of protection and am satisfied with Allah’s protection.'” (168). This story shows that it is permissible to accept non-Muslims’ protection.

84. Du Mekmar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You will make an allegiance with the Byzantines, then you and they will fight a common enemy, and you will be victorious, take spoils, and be safe. You will then return to a meadow and one of the Christians will raise the cross and say: ‘The cross has conquered.’ One of the Muslims will become angry and smash it, and the Byzantines will act treacherously and prepare for battle.” (169). This Hadith shows that it is permissible to have an allegiance with non-Muslims.

85. Anas bin Malik said, “Abu Talha was the one among the Ansar of Medina who owned the most property. Among the property he valued most was a garden opposite the mosque. The Prophet, peace be upon him, often visited the garden and drank of its sweet water. When this verse was revealed: ‘You will never attain righteousness till you give freely of what you love,’ Abu Talha went to the Prophet and said, ‘Allah says in His Book that you will never attain righteousness till you give freely of what you love, and the dearest of my property my garden, so I give it as charity and hope that Allah rewards me for it; so spend it, O Messenger of Allah, on whatever purpose you deem it proper. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘That is a prosperous property! I have heard what you have said, but I think you should spend it on your nearest relatives.’ So Abu Talha distributed it his relatives.” This Hadith shows that it is permissible to pay alms non-Muslims, especially if they are relatives.

The following Hadiths show the permissibility of arbitrating between the People of the Book:

86. Al-Ash’ath said, “A Jew and I shared some land and he denied me my right, so I took him to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he said to me, ‘Do you have any evidence?’ I said, ‘No.’ He then said to the Jew, ‘Swear an oath.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, he will swear an oath and go off with my property,’ so Allah revealed, ‘Those who barter for a small price Allah’s covenant and their oaths.'” (190).

87. Abdullah Ibn Abbas said, “When the following verse was revealed, ‘If they do come to thee, either judge between them, or decline to interfere. If thou judge between them, do so in equity,’ the Banu Al-Nadir Jews used to pay half blood money if they killed anyone from Banu Qurayzah. When Banu Qurayzah killed anyone from Banu Al-Nadir, they would pay full blood money. So the Prophet, peace be upon him, made it equal between them.”

The following verses and Hadiths show the permissibility of accepting Non-Muslims’ testimony:

88. Allah said, “O you who believe, testimony [should be taken] among you when death approaches one of you at the time of bequest – [that of] two just men from among you or two others from outside if you are traveling through the land and the calamity of death should strike you. Detain them after the prayer and let them both swear by Allah if you doubt [their testimony, saying], ‘We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony of Allah. Indeed, we would then be of the sinful.’ But if it is found that those two were guilty of perjury, let two others stand in their place [who are] foremost [in claim] from those who have a lawful right. And let them swear by Allah, ‘Our testimony is truer than their testimony, and we have not transgressed. Indeed, we would then be of the wrongdoers.’ That is more likely that they will give testimony according to its [true] objective, or [at least] they would fear that [other] oaths might be taken after their oaths. Fear Allah and listen. Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people.” [Al-Maeda: 106-108]. Ibn ‘Abbas these verses were revealed concerning the following story: “A man from Banu Sahm went out with Tamim Al-Dari and Adi Ibn Badda’. The man of Banu Sahm died in a land where no Muslim was present. When they returned with his inheritance, his heirs did not find a silver cup with lines of gold in his property. The Prophet, peace be upon him, administered on oath to them. The cup was then found with some people in Mecca. They said, ‘We bought it from Tamim and Adi.’ Then two men from the heirs of the man from Banu Sahm got up and swore saying, ‘Our testimony is more reliable than their testimony. They said that the cup belonged to their man.'” (192). Ibn Hajar said, “It was understood from this Hadith that it is permissible to accept non-Muslims’ testimony.” (193).

89. Yahya said, “Shurayh accepted the testimony of the people of the book.”(194).

To Accept their Intercession in some Cases:

• Mohammed bin Jubair narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said about the prisoners of Badr, “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake.” (199) This Hadith indicates that Muslims can accept the intercession of non-believers, for Mut’im bin Udai protected the Prophet, peace be upon him, once and that is why the Prophet, peace be upon him, wanted to pay him back.

Greeting non-Muslims and shaking their Hands:

• Abu Abdullah Asqallaani said that he saw Ibn Muhaireez shake hands with a Christian in a mosque in Damascus (200).

• Umaamah al-Bahili used to greet whoever he met, yet a Jew once hid behind a cylinder so that he could greet Abu Umaamah first, and then Umaamah said to him, “Woe to you, O Jew What made you do what you did?” He said, “I felt that greeting people first is a preferable deed, after seeing you greet people all the time, ” Abu Umaamah said, “Woe I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, “Allah made the greetings of peace a salute to our nation and a safety for Dhimmis (treaty-makers)”(201).

• Abdul Razak said that shaking hands with Jews and Christians is allowed, since Sufian al-Thaori and Imran agreed that there is nothing wrong with greeting and shaking hands with Jews and Christians. (202)

• Usama bin Zaid said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, rode a donkey having a saddle with a Fadakiyya velvet covering. He mounted me behind him and went to visit Saad bin Ubada, and that had been before the battle of Badr. The Prophet proceeded till he passed by a gathering in which Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul was present, and that had been before Abdullah embraced Islam. The gathering comprised of Muslims, non-Muslims and Jews, then the Prophet, peace be upon him greeted them” (203).

• Abu Othman Nahdi said, “Abu Musa greeted Dehqan in the message he sent him, then some said, “why do you greet a non-believer?’ He said, “He greeted me first so I replied” (204).

• Alqamah said, “Abu Musa greeted Dehqan in order to prove that it is acceptable to greet non-Muslims.”(205)

• Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back a Jew, a Christian, or a Magian, for Allah said, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better than it or return it. Allah takes count of all things.'” ((206

• Abdullah ibn Abbas said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Caesar and invited him to Islam and sent him a letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi whom the prophet ordered to hand over the letter to the Governor of Busra who would forward it to Caesar. The Prophet said in the letter, ” “In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam, embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the peasants. “Say: O People of the Scripture! Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him)”(207).

• Uqbah ibn Aamir al-Juhani greeted a man he passed by, the man greeted him back. Then Uqbah’s Servant said, “He is a Christian!”, Uqbah followed the man and said to him, “Allah’s mercy and blessings are bestowed upon the faithful, but may Allah prolong your life and bless your children.”(208)

• Ibn Abbas said, “I would even greet back Pharaoh, had he greeted me.” (209)

• Alqamah said, “I came back from Hiraa with Abdullah and a couple of non-believers, and after he entered Kufa and was about to part away from them, Abdulllah greeted them. I said, ‘Why do you greet non-believers?’ He said, ‘They were our companions in this journey, thus we have to greet them” (210).

• Umar’s servant said, “When we came back from Sham with Omar bin Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, Al-Dehghan came to him and said,’ O Commander of the Faithful, I have made you food; can you honor me by coming to the church?’ He said, ‘I cannot enter these Churches that have such images'” (211)

• Ibn Abbas greeted a treaty-maker first, and then some people said, “You greeted a treaty-maker first?” He said, ‘Allah is peace” (212).

• Ibrahim said, “It is permissible to greet a non-believer first” (213).

• Abu Burda said, “A man of the non-believers wrote a letter to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and greeted him, then the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, greeted him back” (214).

• Mujahid said, “Greet the people of the book by saying, ‘peace be upon those who follow guidance’ (215).

• Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back whoever greets you, for Allah said, ”When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better than it or return it. Allah takes count of all things.'” [women: 86] (216).

• Abu Basra narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “We are about to approach Jews, so do not greet them first, and if they greet you then say, ‘And upon you too'” (217).

• Anas said, “We were asked to greet back the people of the book with ‘And upon you too'” (218).

• Awn bin Abdullah said, “Muhammad ibn Ka’b asked Omar bin Abdul Aziz about greeting treaty-makers. He said, “greet them and greet them back” for Allah said,” Then bear with them (O Muhammad) and say: Peace. But they will come to know” (219).

• Ibn Ajlan said, “Abdullah and Abu Darda used to greet non-believers first.” (220)

• Muammar said, “I said to Zuhri, ‘Are we allowed to greet non-believers?’ He said, ‘There is nothing wrong with it'”(221)

• Anas narrated that the Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to him, “The People of the Book offer us salutations. How should we respond?” Thereupon he said, ‘ Say: and upon you too'”. (222)

• Al-Nawawi said, “scholars differed in the verdict of greeting non-believers first, but there is a consensus among scholars that it is impermissible to greet non-believers first, yet it is an obligation to greet them back by saying, ‘And upon you too’, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘say: and upon you too’. Also, some Scholars said that it is permissible to greet non-believers first, since Ibn Abbas, Abu Umaamah, and IbnAbiMakeaz, said that it is permissible to do so. Some Scholars agreed that it is not preferable and not forbidden to greet non-Muslims first. (223).

Asking non-Believers’ permission:

• Abdul Rahman bin Yazid used to ask for non-believers’ permission before entering their room.(224)

• Said bin Jubair said, “You must ask for non-believers’ permission before entering their place.”(225)

• Abu Munabeh said, “Hassan said that Muslims must ask for non-Muslims’ permission before entering their place.” (226).

Honoring non-Muslims:

• Hassan ibnAbiYahya al-Kindi said, “We were sitting with Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, when a master from Najran came to visit Ali, and Ali honored him. A man said, “Why do you honor a Christian, O Commander of the Faithful?” He said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to honor them when they visited him.”(227)

Giving non-Muslims names by Muslim:

• Abu Zuhari, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, called Safwan bin Umaya when he came on a horse, “Come down Abu Wahab.”(228).

• Al-frafsah al-Hanafi said that Omar Ibn al Khattab called a Christian ‘Abu Hassan’ (229).

• Qatada narrated that a Christian said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, I had converted to Islam. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘Abu al-Harith!’. He said, “I had converted to Islam before you!” He said, ‘You lied, three traits came between you and Islam (prevented you from converting), drinking alcohol, eating pork, and you claiming Allah has a son.”(230).

Eating the slaughters of the people of the book:

Islam assured Muslims that it is permissible to eat the food and the slaughters of the people of the book, as Allah said, “This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.” [Al-Maeda: 5]. The Hadiths that indicate the permissibility of eating the slaughters of the people of the book are as follows:

• Ibn Abbas said, “Allah said, ‘The food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them'”. (231)

• Muammar said that az-Zuhari stressed that it is permissible to eat Christians’ slaughters.” (232).

• Ibrahim said, “There is nothing wrong with eating Christians’ slaughters.” (233).

• Gatifibn al-Harith said, “Some Muslims asked Umar about eating the slaughters of some Jews who recite the Torah, but do not believe in resurrection. Umar said, “They are a sect from the people of the book, therefor eating their slaughters is permissible.”(234)

• Qais bin Sakan said that Abdullah said, “Do not eat the cheese made by other than Muslims or the people of the book.” (235)

• Swedan, the servant of Salman said, “We found a basket when we were on a conquest in Madaen. And then Salman said, “Open it, if you find money, pay it back to its owners, and eat the food you find”, He said, “We opened it and found loaves of bread and cheese, and then Salman showed us how to cut loves since this is the first time Arabs saw loaves, and said, “Eat, in the name of Allah.” (236)

• Hasan and IbnSirin said that there is nothing wrong with eating the food of the people of the book. (237).

• Abu Wael Ibrahim said, “Eating the slaughters of the people of the book is permissible, as long as they mention the name of Allah before slaughtering them. And it is also permissible to eat the food of other than the people of the book except for meats.”(238).

Selling and buying from the people of the book:
Islam allowed Muslims to sell their goods to the people of the book and buy from them in the following Hadiths:

• Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, made an agreement with Khyber Jews and allowed them to plant the land under the condition of splitting goods with Muslims.”(239).

• Abdullah Alhozna said, “I said to Belal bin Rabah, the muezzin (the one who calls for prayer) of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘O Bilal! Tell me about how the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, spent his money.’ He said, ‘He didn’t own anything. And if an impoverished Muslim came by to visit him, he would ask me to borrow money in order to clothe and feed him. However, I once encountered a non-Muslim who asked me to borrow money from no one other than him, so I did. And while I was about to call for prayer, the non-Muslim came by and said to me in an aggressive tone ‘O black man, I can belittle you, enslave you, and make you a shepherded, just like you used to be, if you don’t pay back your debt.’ I felt sad, and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came, “O Messenger of Allah, the non-Muslim whom I borrowed money from told me so and so, and you don’t have any money to pay him back, nor do I, hence I will stay and work with some of the people who had converted to Islam, until the messenger, peace be upon him, earns the money to pay back my debt”. I went back to my house, and as dawn broke, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, summoned me and gave me some of the gifts that were just sent to him by one of the leaders, so that I can pay my debt. Thus I paid back my debt.”(240)

• Al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih (in the book of hiring non-Muslims when necessary), that Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Prophet and Abu Bakr employed a non-Muslim from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail and the tribe of Bani ‘Abu bin `Adi as a guide. He was an expert guide and he broke the oath contract which he had to abide by with the tribe of Al-Asi bin Wail and he was on the religion of Quraish pagans. The Prophet and Abu Bakr had confidence in him and gave him their riding camels and told him to bring them to the Cave of Thaur after three days. So, he brought them their two riding camels after three days and both of them (The Prophet and Abu Bakr) set out accompanied by Amir bin Fuhaira and the Dili guide who guided them below Mecca along the road leading to the sea-shore.”

• Marwan Ibn al-Hakam and Maisoor bin Khurma said, ” The Prophet, peace be upon him, set out in the company of more than one thousand of his companions in the year of Al-Hudaibiya, and when he reached Dhul-Hulaifa, he garlanded his sacrificing animal, assumed the state of Ihram for `Umra from that place, and sent a spy from Khuzi’a tribe.”(243). IbnTaymiyah said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, always listened to the advice of the Muslim and non-Muslim members of Khuzaa tribe, as al-Bukahri narrated in his Sahih. Also, Abu Talib used to support and protect the Prophet, peace be upon him, which indicates that some people of the book are trustworthy, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75] (244). Therefore, it is permissible to hire some trustworthy non-Muslims, borrow money from them, take their advice, entrust them, and learn their science. “(245). Al-Khattabi said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a spy from Khuzaa, entrusted them, and took the advice of Muslim and non-Muslim members of Khuzaa tribe, since they were trustworthy.”(246).

• Ali bin AbiTalib, May Allah be pleased with him, said, “I was very hungry, so I left the house of the Prophet, peace be upon him, seeking food since I couldn’t find anything to eat in the house of the Prophet, peace upon him. I stopped by a wealthy Jew who was irrigating his field. He said to me, “O Nomad? I will pay you a date for each bucket you lift? I said, “Yes”, so I worked for him, and he gave me a date for each bucket I lifted, until my palm was filled with dates, and then I ate them and drank some water.”(247).

• Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, narrated, that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, died and his armor was mortgaged to a Jew for thirty Sa’ (measures) of barley.”(248)

• Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, narrated, that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, purchased food grains from a Jew on credit and mortgaged his iron armor to him.”(249)

• IbnHajar said, “This Hadith indicates that it is permissible to deal and interact with non-Muslims, ask for a loan from them, and mortgage goods. (250) And said, “scholars believe that the Prophet mortgaged his armor to a Jew rather than a Muslim, in order to demonstrate the permissibility of dealing with non-Muslims.” (251)

• Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Salam said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, borrowed dates form a Jew called ‘Yamin'” (252).

• Ali, May Allah be pleased be with him, said, “I got an old she-camel as my share from the spoils, and the Prophet had given me another from Al- Khumus. And when I intended to marry Fatima (The daughter of the Prophet), I arranged that a goldsmith from the tribe of BaniQainuqa’ would accompany me in order to bring Idhkhir and then sell it to the goldsmiths and use its price for my marriage banquet.(253)

• Muhammad bin Abi Al-Mujalid said, “Abu Burda and Abdullah bin Shaddad, sent me to AbdurRahman bin Abza, and Abdullah bin AbiAufa, to ask them about the companions. They said, “We used to get war spoils while we were with Allah’s Messenger, and when the non-believers of Sham came to us we used to pay them in advance for wheat, barley, and oil to be delivered within a fixed period.” I asked them, “Did the peasants own standing crops or not?” They replied, “We never asked them about it.”(254)(255)

• Sahl bin Saad said, “Ali bin AbiTalib entered upon Fatimah while Hasan and Husain were crying. He asked, ‘Why are they crying?’ She replied, ‘Due to hunger’. Ali went out and found a dinar in the market. He then came to Fatima and told her about it. She said, ‘Go to such and such, a Jew and get some flour for us’. He came to the Jew and purchased flour from him. He said, ‘Are you the son-in-law of him who believes that he is the Prophet of Allah’. He said, ‘Yes’. The Jew said, ‘Have your dinar with you and you will get the flour’. Ali then went out and came to Fatima. He told her about the matter. She then said, ‘Go to such and such, a butcher and get some meat for us for a dirham’. Ali went out and pawned the dinar for a dirham with him and got the meat, and brought it. She then kneaded the flour, put the utensil on fire and baked the bread. She sent for her father. He came to them. And she said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I will tell you about all what happened. If you think it is lawful for us, we shall eat it and you will eat with us. She said, ‘The matter is such and such’. He said, ‘Eat in the name of Allah’. So they ate it. While they were (eating) at their place, a boy cried adjuring in the name of Allah and Islam, He was searching for the dinar. The Messenger of Allah, commanded him to come and he was called in. He asked him about the Dinar. The boy replied, ‘ I lost it somewhere in the market.’ The Prophet said, ‘Ali, go to the butcher and tell him that the Messenger of Allah has asks you to send the dinar to him and one dirham of yours will be due on me’. The butcher returned it and the Messenger of Allah handed it to the boy”.

• Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Sahih (the book of sales), that Abdul Rahman bin AbiBakr, May Allah be pleased with him said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a tall non-Muslim with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, “Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?” The man replied, “They are for sale.” The Prophet bought one sheep from him. (257). IbnBattaal said that al-Bukhari enlisted this Hadith in the book of sales to indicate that buying and selling from non-Muslims is permissible. (258)

• Umm Salamah said that Abu Bakr embarked on a business journey to Basra, one year before the death of the Prophet, peace be upon him. (259)

• Al-Thaori said, “A Muslim can pray in the clothes he bought or borrowed from a non-Muslim without having to wash it.”(260)

• Abdul Razak said, “I heard Al-Thaori say, ‘ A Muslim can pray in the clothes he bought or borrowed from a Christian, a Jew, or a Magian, as long as they are clean.”(261).

• Umaya bin Safwan bin Umaya said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, borrowed coats of mail from Safwan bin Umaya on the day of the battle of Hunayn. Safwan asked, ‘Are you taking them by force Muhammad?’ He replied, ‘No, it is a loan with a guarantee of their return'”. (262).

• Jabir bin Abdullah said, “When my father died he owed a Jew thirty Awsuq (of dates). I requested him to give me respite for repaying but he refused. I asked the Prophet to intercede with the Jew. The Prophet went to the Jew and asked him to accept the fruits of my trees in place of the debt but the Jew refused. The Prophet entered the garden of the date-palms, wandered among the trees and ordered me (saying), “Pluck (the fruits) and give him his due.” So, I plucked the fruits for him after the departure of the Prophet and gave him his thirty Awsuq, and still had seventeen Awsuq extra for myself. Jabir said, ‘I went to the Prophet to inform him of what had happened, but found him praying the Asr prayer. After the prayer I told him about the extra fruits which remained. The Prophet told me to inform (Umar) Ibn Al-Khattab about it. When I went to Umar and told him about it, Umar said, “When the Prophet walked in your garden, I was sure that Allah would definitely bless it.”
(263).

• Al-Bukhari narrated in the book of agency (2301), that Abdul Rahman bin Auf said, “I got an agreement written between me and Umaiya bin Khalaf that Umaiya would look after my property (or family) in Mecca and I would look after his in Medina. When I mentioned the word ‘Ar-Rahman’ in the documents, Umaiya said, “I do not know ‘Ar-Rahman.’ Write down to me your name, (with which you called yourself) in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.” So, I wrote my name ‘Abdu Amr’. On the day (of the battle) of Badr, when all the people went to sleep, I went up the hill to protect him. Bilal saw Umaiya and went to a gathering of Ansar and said, “Here is Umaiya bin Khalaf! Woe to me if he escapes!” So, a group of Ansar went out with Bilal to follow us (Abdur-Rahman and Umaiya). Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umaiya’s son for them to keep them busy but the Ansar killed the son and insisted on following us. Umaiya was a fat man, and when they approached us, I told him to kneel down, and he knelt, and I laid myself on him to protect him, but the Ansar killed him by passing their swords underneath me, and one of them injured my foot with his sword. The sub narrator said, “Abdul Rahman used to show us the trace of the wound on the back of his foot.”IbnHajar said, “Abdul Rahman bin Auf, a Muslim, delegated the non-Muslim Umaya bin Khalaf, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not disapprove of what he did.” Ibn al-Mundhir said, “A Muslim is allowed to delegate a non-Muslim.” (264-265).

• Hasan emphasized that there is nothing wrong with establishing business with a trustworthy Jew or a Christian, as long as the Muslim himself wishes for it. (266)

• Eyas bin Muawiya said, “There is nothing wrong with establishing business with a trustworthy Jew or a Christian, as long as the Muslim looks after his money.”(267)

• Hammad said that there is nothing wrong with buying goods from a treaty-maker. (268)

Interceding for a non-Muslim:

• Khalid al-Hizza said, “Omar bin Abdul Aziz said that Muslims are allowed to Intercede for Jews.”(269)

• Al-Thaori said, “Muslims are allowed to Intercede for all people, including Jews, Christians, and Magi.” (270).

Learning their science and language:

• Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, agreed to free some of the prisoners of Badr, if they taught the children of Ansar how to write.”(271)

• ZaidibnThabit said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered me (to learn the writing of the Jews), so I learnt for him the writing of the Jews. He said, ‘I swear by Allah, I do not trust Jews in respect of writing for me. So I learnt it, and only a fortnight passed that I mastered it. I would write for him when he wrote (to them), and read to him when something was written to him.” (272)

• Jaddama al-Asadya said, “I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him say, ”I intended to prohibit ghilah but I remembered that Greeks and Persians do that without it causing any injury to their children.'” (273). Malik said, “Ghailah means that a man has intercourse with women while she is breastfeeding a child.”

Seeking Medication from a non-Muslim:

• Saad said, “I suffered from an illness, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, came to visit me. He put his hands between my nipples and I felt its coolness at my heart. He said, ‘You are a man suffering from a heart sickness. Go to al-HarithibnKaladah, brother of Thaqif. He is a man who gives medical treatment. He should take seven ajwah dates of Medina and grind them with their kernels, and then put them into your mouth.” (274)

• Zaynab Abdullah Abdullah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, ‘spells, charms and love-potions are polytheism’. I asked, ‘Why do you say this? I swear by Allah, when my eye was discharging I used to go to so-and-so, the Jew, who applied a spell to me. When he applied the spell to me, it calmed down’. Abdullah said, ‘That was just the work of the Devil who was picking it with his hand, and when he uttered the spell on it, he desisted. All you need to do is to say as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say, ‘Remove the harm, O Lord of men, and heal. Thou art the Healer. There is no remedy but Thine which leaves no disease behind.” (275 )

The Rights of non-Muslim neighbors:

• Mujahid narrated: “Abdullah bin Amr had a sheep slaughtered for his family, so when he came he said, ‘Have you given some to our neighbor, the Jew? Have you given some to our neighbor, the Jew? (He said it twice), for I heard the Messenger of Allah say, ‘Gabriel continued to advise me about (treating) the neighbors so (kindly and politely), that I thought he would order me (from Allah) to make them heirs.”(276)

• Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr said, “I was once in the land of Nadir, which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah and Zubair. And Zubair went with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and we had a Jew neighbor who cooked a savory sheep, while I was pregnant with my daughter Khadija. I went to his wife and asked her to give me fire (means to set a fire); when I didn’t even need them, only so that she could offer me some food, but she didn’t, I did that thrice, but my attempts were futile. So I went home and cried and prayed to Allah. The Jewish man came and said to his wife, ‘Did anybody visit you today?’ She said, ‘No one except the Arabian woman who came seeking fire’. He said, ‘I will never touch the food unless you send her some of it’. So his wife sent me some of the food and I ate it.” (277)

• Abu Thalabah al-khushani said that he asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “We live in the neighborhood of the People of the Book, and they cook in their pots (the flesh of) swine and drink wine in their vessels. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘If you find any other pots, then eat in them and drink. But if you do not find any others, then wash them with water and eat and drink (In them)’. (278).

• Abu Thalabah said, “I said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘We are living in a land ruled by the people of the Scripture; can we eat our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of game and I hunt the game with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and with my trained hound. Then what is lawful for me to eat?” He said, “As for what you have mentioned about the people of the Scripture, if you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with your bow after mentioning Allah’s Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your trained hound after mentioning Allah’s Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it.”

Visiting non-Muslim Patients:

• Anas said, “A young Jew became ill, so the Prophet went to visit him. He sat down by his head and said to him, ‘Accept Islam. He looked at his father who was beside him near his head, and his father said, ‘Obey Abu al-Qasim’. So he accepted Islam, and then the Prophet stood up and said, ‘Praise be to Allah Who has saved him through me from Hell.” (279)

• Ertah bin Munkadir said that Abu Darda used to visit his Jewish neighbor (280).

Praying for their Guidance:

• Abu Burdah said, “Jews used to try to sneezes in the presence of the Prophet, peace be upon him, hoping that he would say to them, “May Allah has mercy on you!” but he would say instead, ‘May Allah guide you and grant you well-being.'” (281)This Hadith indicates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, was keen on praying for non-Muslims for guidance.

• Ibrahim said, “A Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘Pray for me’. The Prophet said, ‘May Allah bless your wealth and children, make your body healthy, and prolong your life.'”(282)

• Ibrahim said, “There is nothing wrong with praying for Jews and Christians’ guidance.”(283)

• Qatada said, “a Jew milked the Prophet’s camel, peace be upon him, and the Prophet prayed for him and said, ‘Allah make him more beautiful”, thus his hair became blacker”. (284)

Mingling with the people of the book, to call them to Islam, and buy goods from them:

There are numerous Hadith that indicate that Muslims used to mingle and buy from the people of the book, or other non-Muslims, such as:

• Said bin Jubair said, “A Jew from Hira asked me which one of the two periods The Prophet Moses completed. I said, “I don’t know, (but wait) till I see the most learned Arab and inquire him about it.” So, I went to Ibn Abbas and asked him. He replied, “Moses completed the longer and better period.” Ibn Abbas added, “No doubt, an apostle of Allah always does what he says.”(285)

• Ikrimah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to IbnSuriya, “I remind you by Allah Who saved you from the people of Pharaoh, made you cover the sea, gave you the shade of clouds, sent down to you manna and quails, sent down Torah to Moses, do you find stoning (for adultery) in your Book?’ He said, ‘You have reminded me by the Great. It is not possible for me to belive you. He then transmitted the rest of the tradition. (286)

• Usama bin Zaid said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, rode over a donkey with a saddle underneath which there was a thick soft Fadakiya velvet sheet. Usama bin Zaid was his companion rider, and he was going to pay a visit to Saad bin Ubada (who was sick) at the house of Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj, and this incident happened before the battle of Badr. The Prophet passed by a gathering in which there were Muslims, non-Muslims, and Jews, and among them there was Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, and Abdullah bin Rawaha. When a cloud of dust raised by the animal covered that gathering, Abdullah bin Ubai covered his nose with his sheet and said to the Prophet, “Don’t cover us with dust.” The Prophet greeted them and then stopped, dismounted and invited them to embrace Islam, and recited to them the Holy Qur’an. Abdullah bin Ubai’ bin Salul said, “O man! There is nothing better than what you say, if what you say is the truth. So do not trouble us in our gatherings. Go back to your mount (or house,) and if anyone of us comes to you, tell (your tales) to him.” On that Abdullah bin Rawaha said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Come to us and bring it(what you want to say) in our gatherings, for we love that.” So the Muslims, the pagans and the Jews started quarreling till they were about to fight and clash with one another. The Prophet kept on quieting them (till they all became quiet). He then rode his animal, and proceeded till he entered upon Saad bin Ubada, he said, “O Saad, didn’t you hear what Abu Habbab said? (He meant Abdullah bin Ubai). He said so-and-so.” Saad bin ‘Ubada said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Excuse and forgive him, for by Allah, Allah has given you what He has given you. The people of this town decided to crown him (as their chief) and make him their king. But when Allah prevented that with the Truth which He had given you, it choked him, and that was what made him behave in the way you saw him behaving. “So the Prophet excused him.”

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companions used to be forgiving and patient with the people of the book and non-Muslims, as Allah instructed, for Allah said,” And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah – indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.” And said, ” Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy from themselves [even] after the truth has become clear to them”, and when the Badr battle took place, IbnAbiSalool and other non-believers new that this was the order of Allah, thus they converted to Islam.(278)

• Abdullah said, “While I was going with the Prophet through the ruins of Medina and he was reclining on a date-palm leaf stalk, some Jews passed by. Some of them said to the others, “Ask him (the Prophet) about the spirit”. Some of them said that they should not ask him that question as he might give a reply which would displease them. But some of them insisted on asking, and so one of them stood up and asked, “O Abul-Qasim! What is the spirit?” The Prophet remained quiet. I thought he was being inspired divinely. So I stayed till that state of the Prophet (while being inspired) was over. The Prophet then said, “And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind has not been given of knowledge except a little.”(288)

• Faltan BinAsim said, “We were sitting with the Prophet, peace be upon him, then the Prophet asked a man who was walking in the mosque, if he testifies that he is the Messenger of Allah. The man Said, ‘No’. The Prophet asked him if he read the Torah and the Bible. He said, ‘Yes’. Then he asked him if he read the Koran. He Said, ‘I can read it if I wanted to’. Then the Prophet asked him whether he found him (read about him) in the Torah and the Bible. He said, ‘Yes, we have read about you and your nation, and we hoped that you would be one of us, yet when you appeared we were worried that you are the one, but you are not the one, for the one mentioned in our books has seventy thousand followers of his nation who will not be accounted for their deeds nor punished, but you only have a few followers . The prophet, peace be upon him, said, “By Him in Whose Hands my life is, I am the one (mentioned) and it is my nation, and they are more than seventy thousand and seventy thousand and seventy thousand.”(290).

• Aisha said that a Jewess came to her and mentioned the punishment in the grave, saying to her, “May Allah protect you from the punishment of the grave.” Aisha then asked the Prophet about the punishment of the grave. He said, “Yes, (there is) punishment in the grave.” Aisha added, “After that I never saw the Prophet but seeking refuge with Allah from the punishment in the grave in every prayer he prayed.” (291)

• Thauban, the freed slave of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “While I was standing beside the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, one of the rabbis of the Jews came and said, ‘Peace be upon you, O Muhammad’. I pushed him back until he almost fell. Upon this he said, ‘Why did you push me?’ I said, ‘Why didn’t you say, ‘O Messenger of Allah?’ The Jew said, ‘We call him by the name by which he was named by his family’. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘My name is Muhammad with which I was named by my family’. The Jew said, ‘I have come to ask you (something)’. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘Should that thing be of any benefit to you, if I tell you that?’ The Jew said, ‘I will lend my ears to it’. The Prophet, peace be upon him, drew a line with the help of the stick that he had with him and then said, ‘Ask (whatever you like). Thereupon the Jew said, ‘Where would the human beings be on the Day when the earth would change into another earth and the heavens too (would change into other heavens)?’ The Prophet said, ‘They would be in darkness beside the Bridge. The Jew said, ‘Who amongst people would be the first to cross (this bridge)?’ He said, ‘They would be the poor amongst the refugees’. The Jew said, ‘What would constitute their breakfast when they would enter Paradise?’ The Prophet said, ‘A caul of the fish-liver’. The Jew said, ‘What would be their food alter this?’ The Prophet said, ‘A bullock which was fed in the different quarters of Paradise would be slaughtered for them’. The Jew said, ‘What would be their drink?’ The Prophet said, ‘They would be given drink from the fountain which is named” Salsabil”‘. The Jew said, ‘I have come to ask you about a thing which no one amongst the people on the earth knows except an apostle or one or two men besides him. The Prophet said, ‘Would it benefit you if I tell you that?’ the Jew said, ‘I would lend ears to that’. He then said, ‘I have come to ask you about the child’. The Prophet said, ‘The reproductive substance of man is white and that of woman (i. e. ovum central portion) yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male’s substance (chromosomes and genes) prevails upon the female’s substance (chromosomes and genes), it is the male child that is created by Allah’s Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by the Decree of Allah’. The Jew said, ‘What you have said is true; verily you are an Apostle. He then returned and went away. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘He asked me about such and such things of which I have had no knowledge till Allah gave me that'”.(292)

• Anas bin Malik said, “While we were with the Messenger of Allah, sitting in the Masjid, a man entered on a camel. He made it kneel in the Masjid, and then he hobbled it. Then he said; ‘Which of you is Muhammad?’ He was reclining among them, and we said to him: ‘This white man who is reclining.’ The man said to him, ‘O son of Abdul-Muttalib.’ The Messenger of Allah said to him, ‘I have answered you.”(293)

• Ibn Abbas said, “Sons of Saad Bin Bakr, sent Dhamam bin Thalaba to the Prophet, peace be upon him. He entered on a camel. He made it kneel in the Masjid, and then he hobbled it. Then he said, ‘Which of you is the son of Abdul-Muttalib?’ The Messenger of Allah said to him, ‘I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib'”(294).

• Abu Hurayrah said, “A man and a woman of the Jews committed adultery. Some of them said to the others, ‘Let us go to this Prophet, for he has been sent with an easy law. If he gives a judgment lighter than stoning, we shall accept it, and argue about it with Allah, saying, ‘It is a judgment of one of your prophets’. So they came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, who was sitting in the mosque among his companions, and said, ‘AbulQasim, what do you think about a man and a woman who committed adultery?”(295) Al-Khattabi said, “This Hadith indicates that non-Muslims are allowed to enter mosques if necessary.”

• AbuNamlah al-Ansari said, “I was sitting with the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a Jew was also with him, a funeral passed by him. Then the Jew asked him, ‘Muhammad, does this funeral speak?’ The Prophet, peace be upon him said, ‘Allah has more knowledge’. The Jew said, ‘It speaks’. The Prophet, peace be upon him said, ‘Do not verify, nor falsify whatever the people of the Book tell you, but say, ‘We believe in Allah and His Prophet. So that you would not confirm it, if it is false, nor falsify it if it is right”.

• Abdullah said, “A Jewish Rabbi came to Prophet, peace be upon him, and he said, “O Muhammad! We learned that Allah will put all the heavens on one finger, and the earths on one finger, and the trees on one finger, and the water and the dust on one finger, and all the other created beings on one finger. Then He will say, ‘I am the King.’ Thereupon the Prophet smiled so that his pre-molar teeth became visible, and that was the confirmation of the Rabbi. Then Prophet, peace be upon him, recited, ‘ They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal, while the earth entirely will be [within] his grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in his right hand. Exalted is he and high above what they associate with Him.'” [az-Zumar: 67] (300).

• Tariq bin Shihab said, ‘A Jew said to Umar, ‘If this Verse had been revealed to us, we would have taken it as a festival (Eid), “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion”. Umar said: ‘I know the day when it was revealed and the night of which it was revealed; a Friday night when we were with Messenger of Allah in Arafat.'”(301)

• Qutailah, a woman from Juhainah, said, “A Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, “You are setting up rivals (to Allah) and associating others with Him. You say, ‘Whatever Allah wills and you will,’ and you say, ‘By the Ka’bah.'” So the Prophet commanded them, if they wanted to swear an oath, to say: “By the Lord of the Ka’bah;” and to say, “Whatever Allah wills, and then what you will.”(302)

• Hudhayfah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Do not say: “What Allah wills and so and so wills,” but say: “What Allah wills and afterwards so and so wills.”(303)

Accepting their Gifts:

• Abdullah bin Umar said, “Umar bin Al-Khattab saw a silken dress (cloak) being sold at the gate of the Mosque and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Why don’t you buy it and wear it on Fridays and when the delegates come to you!” The Prophet said, “This is worn by the one who will have no share in the Hereafter.” Later on some silk dresses were brought and The Prophet sent one of them to Umar. Umar said, “How do you give me this to wear while you said what you said about the dress of ‘Utarid?” The Prophet said, “I have not given it to you to wear.” So, Umar gave it to a non-Muslim brother of his in Mecca”.(307)

• Asma’ bint Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “My mother came to me while she was still a polytheist, so I asked Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, “My mother, who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. Shall I maintain relations with her?” He replied, “Yes, maintain relations with your mother”.(308)
• Anas bin Malik said, “A silken cloak was presented to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he used to forbid the usage of silk (by men). When the people were fascinated by the cloak. He said, “By Allah in Whose Hands the life of Muhammad is, the handkerchiefs of Saad bin Muadh in Paradise are better than this.” Anas added, “The present was sent to the Prophet by Ukaidir (a Christian) from Dauma.”(309-310)

• Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said that a Jewish woman came to her and asked her to give her something, so Aisha gave her something, and she said, “May Allah protect you from the torment of the grave.” ‘Aisha said, “She made me worried, until the Messenger of Allah came and I mentioned that to him. He said, ‘They are tormented in their graves with a torment that the animals hear.”‘(312)

• Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a tall pagan with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, ‘Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?’ The non-Muslim replied, ‘They are for sale.’ The Prophet bought one sheep from him.”Ibn Hajar said, “This hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to accept gifts from all non-Muslims, since the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him if the sheep was a gift.”(313)

• Abu Dawood narrated in (The book of the Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims), that Abdullah Alhozna said, “I said to Belal bin Rabah, the muezzin (the one who calls for prayer) of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘O Bilal! Tell me about how the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, spent his money.’ He said, ‘He didn’t own anything. And if an impoverished Muslim came by to visit him, he would ask me to borrow money in order to clothe and feed him. However, I once encountered a non-Muslim who asked me to borrow money from no one other than him, so I did. And while I was about to call for prayer, the non-Muslim came by and said to me in an aggressive tone ‘O black man, I can belittle you, enslave you, and make you a shepherded, just like you used to be, if you don’t pay back your debt.’ I felt sad, and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came, “O Messenger of Allah, the non-Muslim whom I borrowed money from told me so and so, and you don’t have any money to pay him back, nor do I, hence I will stay and work with some of the people who had converted to Islam, until the messenger, peace be upon him, earns the money to pay back my debt”. I went back to my house, and as dawn broke, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, summoned me and gave me some of the gifts that were just sent to him by one of the leaders, in order to pay my debt. Thus I paid back my debt.”

• Anas ibn Malik said, “The King Dhu Yazan presented to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a suit of clothes which he had purchased for thirty-three camels or thirty-three she-camels. He accepted it”.(315)

• Buraydah said, “The Coptic Muqawqis gave the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him’ Maria’, the mother of Ibrahim, the son of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and ‘The mother of Abdul Rahman bin Hassan’, which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, gave to Hassan ibn Thabit. Muqawqis also gave the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, a mule and he accepted it.”(316).

• Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn al-Harith said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, purchased a suit of clothes for twenty she-camels and some more, and presented it to the king DhuYazan.”

• Salman al-Farsi said, “I was a Persian man, one of the people of Isbahaan, from a village called Jayy. My father was the chief of his village, and I was the dearest of to him. He loved me so much that he kept me in his house near the fire, as girls are kept in. I strove hard in the Magian religion until I became the keeper of the fire, which I tended and did not let go out for a moment. My father had a huge garden, and he was busy one day with some construction work, so he said, ‘O my son, I am too busy with this building today, go and check my garden’, and he told me some of the things he wanted done. I went out, heading towards his garden, and I passed by one of the Christian churches, where I could hear their voices as they were praying. I did not know anything about the people because my father had kept me in his house. When I passed by and heard their voices, I entered upon them to see what they were doing. When I saw them, I was impressed with their prayer and I was attracted to their way. I said, ‘By Allah, this is better than the religion that we follow. I did not leave them until the sun set, and I forgot about my father’s garden and did not go there. I said to them, ‘Where did this religion originate from?’ They said, ‘From Syria’. Then I went back to my father, who had sent people out to look for me, and I had distracted him from all his work. When I came to him, he said, ‘O my son, where were you? Did I not ask you to do what I asked?’ I said, ‘I passed by some people who were praying in a church of theirs, and I was impressed with what I saw of their religion. By Allah, I stayed with them until the sun set.’ He said, ‘Son, there is nothing good in that religion. Our religion is better than that. I said, ‘No, by Allah, it is better than our religion. He was afraid of me, and he put fetters on my legs and kept me in his house. I sent word to the Christians saying, ‘If any Christian merchants come to you from Syria, tell me about them’. They said that some Christian merchants came to them from Syria, and they told me about them. I said to them, ‘Please inform me, when they have completed their business and want to go back to their own country’. So when they wanted to go back to their own country, they told me about that, and I threw off the irons from my legs and went out with them, until I came to Syria. When I reached Syria, I said, ‘Who knows this religion the best?’ They said, ‘The bishop in the church’. So I went to him and said, ‘I like this religion, and I would like to stay with you and serve you in your church and learn from you and pray with you’. He said, ‘Come in’. So I went in with him, but he was a bad man. He would ask them to pay alms, yet he kept a great deal of it for himself and did not give it to the poor; until he amassed seven chests of gold and silver. I hated him deeply for what he did. Thus, when he died and the Christians gathered to bury him. I said to them, ‘He was an immoral man; for he asked you to pay alms, yet he kept a great deal of it for himself and did not give it to the poor’. They said, ‘How do you know that? Show us where his treasure is’. So I showed them where it was and they brought out seven chests filled with gold and silver. When they saw that they said, ‘By Allah, we will never bury him’, then they crucified him and pelted him with stones. Then they brought another man and appointed him in his place, yet I have never seen a man who prayed the five daily prayers better than him; he shunned this world and sought the Hereafter, and no one strived harder than him. I loved him as I had never loved anyone before, and I stayed with him for a while. Then when he was about to die, I said, ‘I was with you and I loved you as I had never loved anyone before, and now you are about to die, hence to whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘O my son, by Allah, I do not know of anyone who nowadays follows what I had followed. The people are doomed they have changed and abandoned most of what they used to follow, except for a man in Mosul who follows what I used to follow, so go and join him. When he died and was buried, I went to the man in Mosul. I said to him, ‘The bishop told me that you follow the same teachings which he followed. He said to me, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with him, and I found him to be a good man who followed the teachings his companion had followed, but he died. When he was dying I said to him, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘Son, by Allah I do not know of anyone who follows what we used to follow except a man in Nasayyibeen, so go to him. Thus I went to the man in Nasayyibeen when he died and was buried. I came to him and told him my story and what my companion had told me to do. He said, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with him and I found him to be a follower of the same way as his two companions, and I stayed with a good man. By Allah, soon death came upon him, and when he was dying I said to him, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘Son, by Allah we do not know of anyone left who follows our way and to whom I can tell you to go, except a man in Ammooriyyah. He follows something like what we follow. If you wish, go to him, for he follows our way. So I went to the man in Ammooriyyah and told him my story. He said, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with a man who was following the same way as his companions, and I became wealthy and bought lots of cows and sheep, and when he was about to die I said, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘By Allah, I do not know of anyone who follows our way to whom I can advise you to go. But there has come the time of a Prophet, who will be sent with the religion of Ibrahim. He will appear in the land of the Arabs and will migrate to a land between two harrahs (lava fields, land with black rocks), between which there are palm trees. He will have characteristics that will not be hidden. He will eat of what is given as a gift but he will not eat of what is given as charity. Between his shoulder blades is the Seal of Prophet hood. If you can go to that land then do so. I stayed in Ammooriyyah after he died then some merchants of Kalb passed by me and I said to them, ‘Will you take me to the land of the Arabs and I will give you these cows and sheep of mine?’ They said, ‘Yes’. So I gave them the cows and sheep, and they took me there, but when they brought me to Wadi al-Qura they wronged me and sold me as a slave to a Jewish man. When I was with him I saw the palm trees, and I hoped that this was the land that my companion had described to me, but I was not sure. Whilst I was with him, a cousin of his from BaniQurayzah came to him from Madinah, and he sold me to him, and he took me to Madeenah. By Allah, as soon as I saw it, I recognized it from the description given to me by my companion. I stayed there, and Allah sent His Messenger, who stayed in Makkah, and I did not hear anything about him because I was so busy with the work of a slave. Then he migrated to Madinah, and I was at the top of a palm tree belonging to my master, doing some work on it, and my master was sitting there. Then a cousin of his came and stood beside him, and said, ‘They are gathering right now in Quba’ to welcome a man who has come from Makkah today, and they say that he is a Prophet. When I heard that, I began to shiver so much that I thought I would fall on top of my master. I came down from the tree and started saying to that cousin of his, ‘What are you saying, what are you saying?’ My master got angry and he struck me with his fist and said, ‘What has it got to do with you? Go back to your work.’ I said, ‘Nothing; I just wanted to make sure of what he was saying’. I had something that I had collected, and when evening came, I went to the Messenger of Allah when he was in Quba, and I entered upon him and said to him, ”I have heard that you are a righteous man and that you have companions who are strangers and are in need. This is something that I have to give in charity, and I see that you are more in need of it than anyone else. I brought it near to him and the Messenger of Allah said to his companions, ‘Eat’, but he refrained from eating. I said to myself, ‘This is the first sign’. Then I went away and collected some more. The Messenger of Allah moved to Madinah, and then I came to him and said, ‘I see that you do not eat (food given in) charity; this is a gift with which I wish to honor you. The Messenger of Allah ate some of it and told his companions to eat too. I said to myself, ‘This is the second sign’. Then I came to the Messenger of Allah when he was in Baqee al Gharqad, where he had attended the funeral of one of his companions and he was wearing two shawls and was sitting among his companions. I greeted him then I moved behind him, trying to look at his back to see the Seal that my companion had described to me. When the Messenger of Allah saw me going behind him, he realized that I was trying to find confirmation of something that had been described to me, so he let his rida drop from his back, and I saw the Seal and recognized it. Then I embraced him, kissing the Seal and weeping, and the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Turn around.’ So I turned around and I told him my story. The Messenger of Allaah wanted his companions to hear that. Then I was kept busy with the work of a slave, and I missed attending the battle of Badr and Uhud with the Messenger of Allah. Then the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Draw up a contract of manumission, O Salman.’ So I signed a contract of manumission with my master in return for three hundred palm trees which I would plant for him, and forty uqiyahs. The Messenger of Allah said to his companions: “Help your brother.” So they helped me with the palm trees, one man gave thirty small trees and another gave twenty, and another gave fifteen, and another gave ten, each man gave according to what he had, until they had collected three hundred small trees for me. Then the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Go, O Salman, and dig the holes where they are to be planted. When you have finished, come to me and I will plant them with my own hand.’ So I dug the holes for them, and my companions helped me, then when I had finished, I came to him and told him. The Messenger of Allah came out with me and we started to bring the trees close and the Messenger of Allah planted them with his own hand. By Allah, not one single tree among them died. So I had paid off the trees but there still remained the money. A piece of gold the size of an egg was brought to the Messenger of Allah from one of his campaigns. He said, ‘What happened to the Persian who had a contract of manumission?’ I was summoned to him and he said, ‘Take this and pay off what you owe, O Salman.’ I said, ‘How could this pay off everything I owe, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Take it, and Allah will help you to pay off what you owe.’ So I took it and weighed it for them, it was forty uqiyahs, so I paid them their dues and I was set free. I was present with the Messenger of Allah at al Khandaq, and after that I did not miss any major event with him.”(320)

Keeping Family ties with non-Muslim Relatives:

• Ibn Abbas recited the Verse, “Except to be kind to me for my kin-ship to you”, [as-Shura:23]. Then Said bin Jubair said, “The Verse implies the kinship of Muhammad.” Ibn Abbas said, “There was not a single house (Tribe) of Quraish but had a kinship to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and so the above Verse was revealed in this connection, and its interpretation is, ‘O Quraish, You should keep good relations with me (Muhammad)” (321)

• Abu Abdullah Bin Amr bin Al-Assaid, “I heard Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, “The family of so-and-so (Abu Talib) are not my supporters. My supporter is Allah and the righteous believing people. But they (that family) have kinship (Rahm) with me and I will be good and dutiful to them.”(322)IbnHajar said, “This Hadith indicates the importance of maintaining ties with non-Muslim relatives.”(323)

• Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said, “My mother came to me, hoping for my favor, so I asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “May I treat her kindly?” He replied, “Yes.” Ibn Uyaina said, “Then Allah revealed, ‘Allah forbids you not with regards to those who fought not against you because of religion, and drove you not out from your homes, that you should show them kindness and deal justly with them.'[Al-Mumtahana: 8].(325)

• Saad bin Abi Waqassaid, “Four verses from the Book of Allah, were revealed about me, for my mother swore not to eat or drink until I leave Muhammad, peace be upon him, then Allah the exalted revealed, ” But if they endeavor to make you associate with me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to me [in repentance]”, and the second was when I lifted a sword I liked and said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, grant me this’ Then Allah revealed, ” They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the bounties [of war]. Say, “The [decision concerning] bounties is for Allah and the Messenger.” And the third was when I got sick and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came to visit me, ‘I want to donate half of my money in my will.’ He said, ‘No’. I Said, ‘Then third?’He remained silent, then the third became permissible after that, and the fourth was when I drank wine with some of the Ansar, and a man hit my nose and I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, then Allah Almighty revealed the verse about the prohibition of alcohol” (326).

Consoling and burying a non-Muslim:

• Abdul Razak said, “I heard Ibn Jreg and Thaowri say that Muslims are allowed to console non-Muslims.”(330)

• Muammar said, “Muslims can bury a Jew or a Christian, yet they are not allowed to pray for them.”(331)

• IbnJreg said, “Ataa said to me that a Muslim is allowed to walk in the funeral of a non-Muslim.” (332)

• IbnJreg said, “Suleiman ibn Musa saaid, ‘they used to walk in our funerals.'” (333)

• Abdul Razak said, “Jews and Christians walked along with Muslims in the funeral of Ibn Dawood.”Muammar said, “It is allowed”(334).

• Jabir bin Abdullah said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a funeral passed, he stood up for it. When we went to carry it, we found that it was a funeral of a Jew. We, therefore said, ‘This is the funeral of a Jew!’ He said, ‘Death is a fearful event, so when you see a funeral, stand up.'” (335)

• Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Layla said, “Sahl bin Hunaif and Qais bin Saad bin Ubadah were in Al-Qadisiyyah when a funeral passed by them, so they stood up and it was said to them, ‘It is one of the local people.’ They said, ‘A funeral passed the Messenger of Allah and he stood up, and it was said to him, ‘It is a Jew’s funeral’. He said, ‘Is it not a soul?”‘. (336) Judge Ayadh said, “We are allowed to walk in the funeral of a non-Muslim.”(337), And Nwawi said that it is preferable.(338)

Inheritance and Wills:

• Amer Shabi said that there is nothing wrong with writing a will to a Jew and a Christian (339).

• Qatada said, “Muslims are allowed to write a will to a Jew and a Christian, yet they are not allowed to give them some of the inheritance.” (340)

• Qatada said, “Muslims are allowed to write a will to a non-Muslim relative.”(341)

• Ata said that Muslims are allowed to write a will to a non-Muslim relative.(342)

• Al-Hasan said, “Muslims are only allowed to give a non-Muslim, the third of the inheritance.”(343)

• Ata said that a Muslim can give a non-Muslim relative some of his money while he is alive, and some of his inheritance after his death. (344)

• Ibn Umar said that Safia gave some of her inheritance to a Jewish relative. (345)

Marriage of the People of the Book:

Allah said, “And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you. When you have given them their due compensation ” [Al-Maeda: 5].

Quoting them and Reading their poetry:

• Sharid said, “One day when I rode behind the Prophet, peace be upon him, he said to me, ‘Do you remember any poetry of Umayya bin Abu Salt?’. I said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘Then go on’. I recited a couplet, and he said, ‘Go on’. Then I again recited a couplet and he said, ‘Go on’. I recited one hundred couplets (of his poetry). This hadith has been reported on the authority of Sharid through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.”(346)

• Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Tell others the stories of the sons of Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so.”(347)

• Abdullah ibnAmrsaid, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to relate to us traditions from the children of Israel till morning came; he would not get up except for obligatory prayer.”(348)

Benevolence to non-Muslims:

• Abu Saaid said, “Some of the companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, went on a journey till they reached some of the Arab tribes. They asked them to take in as their guests but they refused. The chief of that tribe was then bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and they tried their best to cure him but they couldn’t. Some of them said, ‘Nothing worked! Go to the people who resided here at night, for some of them might have a treatment.’ They went to the companions and said, ‘Our chief has been bitten by a snake and we have tried everything but he wasn’t cured. Have you got anything useful?’ One of them replied, ‘Yes, by Allah! I can recite a Ruqya(healing verses from the Quran), but as you have refused to accept us as your guests, I will not recite the Ruqya for you unless you fix for us some wages for it.’ They agreed to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them then went and recited (Surat-ul-Fatiha),” Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds”, and puffed over the chief who became all right as if he was released from a chain, and got up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness. They paid them what they agreed to pay. Some of the companions then suggested to share the spoils, but the one who performed the recitation said, ‘Do not divide them till we go to the Prophet and narrate the whole story to him, and wait for his order’. So, they went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and narrated the story, he then asked, “How did you come to know that Suratul- Fatiha was recited as Ruqya?” Then he added, “You have done the right thing. Divide (what you have earned) and assign a share for me as well.” The Prophet smiled thereupon.”(349)

• Mujahid said, “Abdullah bin Amr had a sheep slaughtered for his family, so when he came he said, ‘Have you given some to our Jewish neighbor? For I heard the Messenger of Allah say, ‘Jibril continued to advise me about (treating) the neighbors so (kindly and politely), that I thought he would order me to make them heirs.”(350)

• Abu Basra al-Ghafari said, “I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, before I converted to Islam. He gave me some of the milk he used to give to his family. So I converted to Islam when I woke up, and the Prophet’s children said, ‘Are we going to sleep on an empty stomach today like we did yesterday?’ Then the Prophet milked a goat and gave me its milk, and I drank it until I was full.”(351).

• Jaber Bin Abdullah said, “When it was the day of the battle of Badr, prisoners of war were brought including Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked for a shirt for him. It was found that the shirt of Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason why the Prophet took off his shirt and gave it to Abdullah.” IbnUyayna added, “He had done the Prophet some favor for which the Prophet liked to reward him.” (352)

• Uthman ibn Abi Sulayman said, “The pagans of Quraish who came to Madina to redeem their captives, slept in the mosque, including Jubayr ibn Mutem, who said, ‘I used to hear the Prophet, peace be upon him, recite the Quran.'”(353).

• Imran bin Husain said, “We were with the Prophet on a journey. We travelled the whole night, and when dawn approached, we took a rest and slept till the sun rose high in the sky. Abu Bakr woke up first, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, used not to be awakened from his sleep. Umar woke up and then Abu Bakr sat by the side of the Prophet’s head and started saying, ‘Allah Akbar’ raising his voice till the Prophet woke up, (and after traveling for a while) he dismounted and led us in the morning prayer. A man amongst the people failed to join us in the prayer, and when the Prophet had finished the prayer, he asked the man, “O so-and-so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with us?” He replied, “I am Junub,” The Prophet ordered him to perform Tayammum(ablution) with clean earth. The man then offered the prayer. The Prophet ordered me and a few others to go ahead of him. We had become very thirsty, and while we were on our way (looking for water), we came across a lady (riding an animal), hanging her legs between two water-skins. We asked her, “Where can we get water?” She replied, ‘Oh! There is no water’. We asked, ‘how far is your house from the water’ She replied, ‘A distance of a day and a night travel’. We said, ‘Come on to the Prophet.’ “She asked, ‘Who is the Prophet?’ So we brought her to the Prophet, and she told him what she had told us before and added that she was the mother of orphans. So the Prophet ordered that her two water-skins be brought and he rubbed the mouths of the water-skins. As we were thirsty, we drank till we quenched our thirst and we were forty men. We also filled all our water skins and other utensils with water, but we did not water the camels. The water skin was so full that it was almost about to burst. The Prophet then said, “Bring what (foodstuff) you have.” So some dates and pieces of bread were collected for the lady, and when she went to her people, she said, “I have met either the greatest magician or a prophet as the people claim.” So Allah guided the people of that village through that lady. She embraced Islam and they all embraced Islam.”(353)
Accepting non-Muslims’ Invitation:

• Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr said, “I was once in the land of Nadir, which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah and Zubair. And Zubair went with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and we had a Jew neighbor who cooked a savory sheep, while I was pregnant with my daughter Khadija. I went to his wife and asked her to give me fire (means to set a fire); when I didn’t even need them, only so that she could offer me some food, but she didn’t, I did that thrice, but my attempts were futile. So I went home and cried and prayed to Allah. The Jewish man came and said to his wife, ‘Did anybody visit you today?’ She said, ‘No one except the Arabian woman who came seeking fire’. He said, ‘I will never touch the food unless you send her some of it’. So his wife sent me some of the food and I ate it.” (356)

Freeing Non-Muslim Slaves:

• Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The last words of the Prophet, peace be upon him, were, ‘Prayer, prayer; fear Allah about (your slaves)'”(357).
• Ismail ibn Abi Hakeem said that Omar bin Abdul Aziz freed his young Christian slave.(358)
• Ibn Umar freed his Christian slave.(359)
• Ibn Zaid said that his father freed his Magian slave.(360).

Forgiving non-Muslims:

• Ata bin Yasar said, “I met Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As and asked him, ‘Tell me about the description of Allah’s Messenger which is mentioned in Torah He replied, ‘Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Qur’an as follows, ‘O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah’s True religion) and a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), and a warner (to the unbelievers) and guardian of the illiterates. You are my slave and my messenger. I have named you “Al-Mutawakkil” (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh nor a noisemaker in the markets and you do not do evil to those who do evil to you, but you deal with them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,” With which will be opened blind eyes and deaf ears and closed hearts.”(361)

• Ka’ab said, “The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is described in the Old Testament, as a person who is neither rude nor relentless, nor a loud person in the market. A person who does not do evil to those who do him evil, but deals with them with forgiveness and kindness, his nation praises God the Almighty all the time, and performs ablution, and their line in battle is as their line in prayer either, recite Quran at night. The Prophet will be born in Mecca and will migrate to Madina.”(362).

• Alisha said, “A Jew from BanuZuraiq, called Labid bin al-Asam cast a spell upon Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him. As a result, he felt that he had been doing something (under the influence of the spell) whereas in fact he had not been doing that. This lasted until one day or during one night Allah’s Messenger prayed to Allah (to dispel its effects). He prayed again, then he said, ‘Alisha, Do you know that Allah has told me about what I had asked Him? There came to me two men and one amongst them sat near my head and the other near my feet. He who sat near my head said to the one who sat near my feet, ‘What is the trouble with the man?’ He said, ‘The spell has affected him’. He said, ‘Who has cast that?’ The other one said, ‘Labid bin Asam. He said, ‘What is the thing by which he transmitted its effect?’ He said, ‘By the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm. He said, ‘Where is that.’ He replied, ‘In the well of DhiArwan’. She said, ‘Allah’s Messenger sent some of his Companions there and then said, ‘Aisha, by Allah, its water was yellow like henna and its trees were like heads of the devils. She said that she asked Allah’s Messenger as to why he did not burn that. He said, ‘No, Allah has cured me and I do not like that I should induce people to commit any high-handedness in regard (to one another), but I only commanded that it should be buried.'(363)

• Aisha said, “The Prophet was bewitched once, that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done”.(364)

• Yonus said, “Ibn Shihab was asked, ‘Do we kill who the people of the book’s magicians?’ He Said, ‘We have heard that a Jew cast a spell on the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, yet he did not kill him”(366)

• Suraqa Bin Khashaam said, “The messengers of the non-Muslims of Quraish came to us declaring that they had assigned for the persons who would kill or arrest the Prophet and Abu Bakr, a reward equal to their blood money. While I was sitting in one of the gatherings of my tribe Bani Mudlij, a man from them came to us and stood up while we were sitting, and said, ‘O Suraqa! No doubt, I have just seen some people far away on the seashore, and I think they are Muhammad and his companions.’ Suraqa added, “I too realized that it must have been them. But I said ‘No, it is not them, but you have seen so-and-so, and so-and-so whom we saw set out.’ I stayed in the gathering for a while and then got up and left for my home, and ordered my slave-girl to get my horse which was behind a hillock, and keep it ready for me. Then I took my spear and left by the back door of my house dragging the lower end of the spear on the ground and keeping it low. Then I reached my horse, mounted it and made it gallop. When I approached them (Muhammad and Abu Bakr), my horse stumbled and I fell down from it, Then I stood up, got hold of my quiver and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether I should harm them or not, and the lot which I disliked came out. But I remounted my horse and let it gallop, giving no importance to the divining arrows. When I heard the recitation of the Quran by the Prophet, who did not look hither and thither while Abu Bakr was doing it often, suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground up to the knees, and I fell down from it. Then I rebuked it and it got up but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground, and when it stood up straight again, its fore-legs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Then again I drew lots with the divining arrows, and the lot which I disliked, came out. So I called upon them to feel secure. They stopped, and I remounted my horse and went to them. When I saw how I had been hampered from harming them, it came to my mind that the cause of Allah’s Prophet (Islam) will become victorious. So I said to him, ‘Your people have assigned a reward equal to the blood money for your head.’ Then I told them all the plans the people of Mecca had made concerning them. Then I offered them some journey food and goods, but they refused to take anything and did not ask for anything, but the Prophet said, ‘Do not tell others about us.’ Then I asked him to write a statement of security and peace for me. He ordered ‘Amr bin Fuhaira who wrote it for me on a parchment, and then the Prophet proceeded on his way.(367)

• Abu Huraira said, “When Khaibar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophets as a gift by the Jews. The Prophet ordered, ‘Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.’ The Jews were summoned and the Prophet said, ‘I am going to ask you a question. Will you tell the truth?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet asked, ‘Who is your father?’ They replied, ‘So-and-so.’ He said, ‘You have told a lie; your father is so-and-so.’ They said, ‘You are right.’ He said, ‘Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?’ They replied, ‘Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you can realize our lie as you have done regarding our father.’ On that he asked, ‘Who are the people of Hell?’ They said, ‘We shall remain in Hell for a short period, and after that you will replace us.’ The Prophet said, ‘You may be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.’ Then he asked, ‘Will you now tell me the truth if I ask you a question?’ They said, ‘Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim.’ He asked, ‘Have you poisoned this sheep?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He asked, ‘What made you do so?’ They said, ‘We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would get rid of you, and if you are a prophet then the poison would not harm you.'”

• Anas said, “A Jewess brought a poisoned sheep for the Prophet, peace be upon him, who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet and he was asked, ‘Shall we kill her?’ He said, ‘No.’ Anas added, “I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah’s Prophet.”(368)

• Abu Hurayrah, said, ” The son of Abdullah ibn Abi Salool passed by the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, while he was troubled ( because of Ibn Salool), sitting under the shade of (a tree) and said to the Prophet, ‘By Allah, I may bring his head to you, If you wish (kill him for your sake)’. But the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to be good to his to his father.”(369).

• Anas bin Malik said, “A Jew passed by the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘As-Samu upon you'(twisted the word so that it would mean poison- Death be upon you). The Prophet said in reply, “And upon you.” The Prophet then said to his companions, “Do you know what he (the Jew) has said? He said, ‘As-Samu ‘Alaika.'” They said, “O Prophet! Shall we kill him?” The Prophet, said, “No. When the people of the Book greet you, say, ‘And upon you.'”(372)

• Aisha said, “A group of Jews asked permission to visit the Prophet (and when they were admitted) they said, “As- Samu ‘Alaika (Death be upon you).” I said (to them), “But death and the curse of Allah be upon you!” The Prophet said, “O Aisha! Allah is kind and lenient and likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.” I said, “Haven’t you heard what they said?” He said, “I said (to them), ‘Wa ‘Alaikum (and upon you).”(373)

• Aisha said,”The Prophet, peace be upon him, was wearing two thick Qitri garments on. When he would sit, he would sweat since they were so heavy for him. Some clothes arrived from Ash-Sham from a Jew. I said, ‘Perhaps you could dispatch a request to him to buy some garments (on credit) from him until it is easy (to pay). So he sent a message to him and he said, ‘I know what he wants. He only wants to take away my wealth’ or ‘my Dirham.’ So the Prophet said, ‘He has lied, indeed he knows that I am the one with the most Taqwa (piety) among them, and the best at fulfilling trusts among them.'”(374)

• Abu Huraira said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, me (during the conquest of Mecca), call the Ansar to me. So I called out to them and they came hurriedly. He said, ‘O ye Assembly of the Ansaar, do you see the ruffians of the Quraish?’ They said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘See, when you meet them tomorrow, wipe them out’. He hinted at this with his hand, placing his right hand on his left and said, ‘You will meet us at as-Safa’. (Abu Huraira continued), ‘Whoever was seen by them that day was put to death. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon, ascended the mount of as-Safa’. The Ansar also came there and surrounded the mount. Then Abu Sufyan came and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, Quraish has perished. No member of the Quraish tribe will survive this day.’ The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘Who enters the house of Abu Safyin will be safe, who lays down arms will be safe, who locks his door will be safe’. (Some of) the Ansar said, ‘(After all) the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. At this, Divine inspiration descended upon the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, he said, ‘You were saying that the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. Do you know what my name is? I am Muhammad, the bondman of God and His Messenger. (He repeated this thrice.) I left my native place for the sake of Allah and joined you. So I will live with you and die with you’. Now the Ansar said, ‘By God, we said (that) only out of our greed for Allah and His Messenger’. He said: Allah and His Prophet testify to you and accept your apology.”(375)

• Abdullah ibn Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say when he returned from a military expedition or a hajj or an umra, three takbirs on every elevated part of the land, and then he used to say, “There is no god but Allah, alone, without partner. To Him belongs the Kingdom and to Him belongs the praise and He has power over everything. Returning, making tawba, serving, prostrating, praising our Lord. Allah has promised truly and given his slave victory and defeated the tribes alone.”

• Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “I proceeded in the company of the Prophet towards Najd to participate in a conquest. When the Prophet returned, I returned with him. Midday came upon us while we were in a valley having many thorny trees. The Prophet and the people dismounted and dispersed to rest in the shade of the trees. The Prophet rested under a tree and hung his sword on it. We all took a nap and suddenly we heard the Prophet calling us. (We woke up) to see a nomad with him. The Prophet said, “This nomad took out my sword while I was sleeping and when I woke up, I found the unsheathed sword in his hand and he challenged me saying, ‘Who will save you from me?’ I said thrice, ‘Allah.’ The Prophet did not punish him but sat down.”(377)

• Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Dimad came to Mecca and he belonged to the tribe of AzdShanu’a, and he used to heal people who were under a spell. He heard the foolish people of Mecca say that Muhammad, peace be upon him, was under a spell. Upon this he said, ‘If 1 were to come across this man, Allah might cure him at my hand’. He met him and said, ‘Muhammad, I can heal people who were under a spell, and Allah cures one whom he so desires at my hand. Do you desire (this)?’ Upon this the Messenger of Allah, said, ‘praise is due to Allah, we praise him, ask his help; and he whom Allah guides aright there is none to lead him astray, and he who is led astray there is none to guide him, and I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, he is one, having no partner with him, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger. Now after this he (Dimad) said: “repeat these words of yours before me, and the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, repeated these to him thrice; and he said I have heard the words of soothsayers and the words of magicians, and the words of poets, but I have never heard such words as yours, and they reach the depth (of the ocean of eloquence) ; bring forth your hand so that I should take oath of fealty to you on Islam. So he took an oath of allegiance to him. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “It (this allegiance of yours) is on behalf of your people too”, He said. The Messenger of Allah sent an expedition, and the flying column passed by his people. The leader of the flying column said to the detachment, ‘Did you find anything from these people?’ One of the people said, ‘I found a utensil for water’. Upon this he (the commander) said, ‘Return it, for he is one of the people of Dimad.'”(378)

• Ibn Ishaq said that Amir bin Wahab Al-Jamahi sat with Safwan bin Umaya, although he was a vicious non-Muslim.

• Abu Huraira said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a Sariya (battalion) of ten men as spies under the leadership of Asim bin Thabit al-Ansari, the grandfather of Asim bin Umar Al-Khattab. They proceeded till they reached Hadaa, a place between Usfan, and Mecca, and their news reached a branch of the tribe of Hudhail called Bani Lihyan. About two-hundred men, who were all archers, hurried to follow their tracks till they found the place where they had eaten dates which they had brought with them from Medina. They said, “These are the dates of Yathrib (Medina), “and continued following their tracks when Asim and his companions saw their pursuers, they went up a high place and the infidels circled them. The infidels said to them, “Come down and surrender, and we promise and guarantee you that we will not kill any one of you” Asim bin Thabit; the leader of the Sariya said, “By Allah! I will not come down to be under the protection of infidels. O Allah! Convey our news to your prophet. Then the infidels threw arrows at them till they martyred Asim along with six other men, and three men came down accepting their promise and convention, and they were Khubaib-al-Ansari and Ibn Dathina and another man So, when the infidels captured them, they undid the strings of their bows and tied them. Then the third (of the captives) said, “This is the first betrayal. By Allah! I will not go with you. No doubt these, namely the martyred, have set a good example to us.” So, they dragged him and tried to compel him to accompany them, but as he refused, they killed him. They took Khubaid and Ibn Dathina with them and sold them (as slaves) in Mecca (and all that took place) after the battle of Badr, Khubaib was bought by the sons of Al-Harith bin Amir Bin Naufal bin Abd Manaf. It was Khubaib who had killed Al-Harith bin Amir on the day of the battle of Badr. So, Khubaib remained a prisoner with those people. Ubaidullah bin Iyyad said that the daughter of Al-Harith had told him, “When those people gathered (to kill Khubaib) he borrowed a razor from me to shave his pubes and I gave it to him. Then he took a son of mine while I was unaware when he came upon him. I saw him placing my son on his thigh and the razor was in his hand. I got scared so much that Khubaib noticed the agitation on my face and said, ‘Are you afraid that I will kill him? No, I will never do so.’ By Allah, I never saw a prisoner better than Khubaib. By Allah, one day I saw him eating of a bunch of grapes in his hand while he was chained in irons, and there was no fruit at that time in Mecca.” The daughter of Al-Harith used to say, “It was a boon Allah bestowed upon Khubaib.”(380)This Hadith indicates Islam’s tolerance, for Khubaib could have killed the boy since he knew they would kill him but he didn’t.

• Abdul Wahid bin Abi Auf said, “Abu Sufyan ibn Harb had asked some of the people of Quraish in Mecca to assassinate the Prophet while he walks in the market, then a nomad came and told ibn Harb that he would be the one to assassinate the Prophet. He took a dagger and went out at night. He then reached the mosque and asked about the whereabouts of the Prophet, peace be upon him. Some people told him to head to Bani Abd Ashhal, so he went to Bani Abd Ashhal, and found the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, (delivering a sermon) to a group of his companions in the mosque. When he entered the mosque and the Messenger of Allah saw him, he knew that he came to assassinate him, and told his companions that Allah would protect him. The nomad bent to kill the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, then Asid bin Khadir, grabbed him and took away the dagger he was hiding. The nomad then feared for his life and asked them to forgive him, and told them that Abu Sufyan ordered him to assassinate the Prophet. He then was held captive in the house of Asid bin Khadir, and when they released him in the morning, he chose to convert to Islam.”(381)

• Zaid ibn Abi Habib said, “Abdullah bin Saham sent a letter (on behalf of the Prophet, peace be upon him) to Khosrau, king of Persia, whereupon he asked him to convert to Islam and warned him that he will be responsible for the sins of the Magi, if he rejects Islam. Khosrau read it, and tore it into pieces. He then ordered Bazam, his deputy to Yemen, to bring the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to him. Bazam then sent Khakara and kharmana to bring the Prophet, from Hijaz to Persia to meet Khosrau. When they arrived at Taif, they found a man from Quraish, and asked him about the whereabouts of the Prophet. He told them that he can be found in Madina. Hence, the people of Taif rejoiced since they thought that Khosrau will manage to stop Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. When the two Persian messengers arrived at Madina, they went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and told him that Khosrau ordered Bazam to bring the Prophet to him, and that if he refuses to come, then Khosrau will eliminate him, his people and his country. Yet, it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, that Khosrau’s son Hirōah killed him in a certain night, so he told them about that, but they did not believe him. They went back to Bazam who received a letter from Khosrau’s son Hirōah, announcing Hirōah the new king after he has killed his father, Bazam then knew that the Prophet, peace be upon him is truly a Messenger from Allah, thus he and the Persians in Yemen converted to Islam.” (382). This Hadith indicates Islam’s tolerance, since the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers whom Bazam sent, and forgave them even though they came to threaten him.

• Ibn `Abbas said, “Musa ilama-al-Kadhdhab (the liar) came in the life-time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, with many of his people (to Medina) and said, “If Muhammad makes me his successor, I will follow him.” the Prophet, peace be upon him, went up to him with Thabit bin Qais bin Shams; and was carrying a piece of a date palm leaf in his hand. He stood before Musailama (and his companions) and said, “If you asked me even this piece (of a leaf), I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid the fate you are destined to, by Allah. If you reject Islam, Allah will destroy you. I think that you are most probably the same person whom I have seen in the dream.”

• Ibn Ishaaq said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers who Musailama-al-Kadhdhab (the liar) sent.

Justice with non-Muslims:

• Ibn Abu Haddrd Aslami said, “I owed a Jew four dirhams, and I didn’t have any money to pay off my debt. The Jew complained to the Prophet, peace be upon him, so the Prophet asked me thrice to give him his money. Thus, I went to the market and sold the mantle I was wearing during winter for four dirhams.”(385).

• Said ibn al-Musayyab said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab judged a dispute between a Muslim and a Jew. Umar saw that the right belonged to the Jew. The Jew said to him, “By Allah! You have judged correctly.” So Umar ibn al-Khattab struck him with a whip and said, “How can you be sure.” The Jew said to him, “We find that there is no judge who judges correctly but that there is an angel on his right side and an angel on his left side who guide him and give him success in the truth as long as he is with the truth. When he leaves the truth, they rise and leave him.”(387)

• Az-Zuhari said, “A Jew came to Abdul Malik bin Marwan and said, “son of Hormuz, was unjust to me,” yet Abdul Malik bin Marwan did not pay any attention to him. The Jew repeated it thrice and said to him, ‘The Imam is an accomplice in any injustice as long as he doesn’t judge it’, and so Abdul Malik sent to son of Hormuz to judge the matter.”(387).

• Harith bin Abdul Muttalib said that a Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, to take his money so the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave him his money(388).

• Irbad bin Saryah said, “I lent a young camel to the Messenger of Allah, and I came to ask him to repay me. He said, ‘Yes, I will only repay you with a superior she-camel.’ so he repaid me and repaid me well. Then a nomad came to him to ask to repay him a camel of a certain age, and the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Give him a camel of certain age.’ On that day they gave him a mature camel and he said, ‘This is better than my camel.’ He (The Prophet) Said, ‘ the best of you is the one who is best in repaying.”'(389)

• Abdullah bin Masud said, “Allah’s Messenger said, ‘Whoever takes an oath when asked to do so, in which he may deprive a Muslim of his property unlawfully, will meet Allah who will be angry with him.’ Al-Ash’ath informed me, “By Allah! This was said regarding me. There was a dispute about a piece of land between me and a man from the Jews who denied my right. I took him to the Prophet. Allah’s Apostle asked me, ‘Do you have evidence?’ I replied in the negative. He said to the Jew, ‘Take an oath.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Prophet! He will surely take an oath and take my property unjustly.” So Allah revealed in confirmation of this statement, “Verily! Those who Purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s Covenant and oaths, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter.”(390)

• Shurayh said, “Ali looked for his armor when he went to fight Maaouya, but couldn’t find it. When the battle ended and he returned to Kufa, he found a Jew selling his armor in the market. Ali told him that this is his armor and that he never sold nor gave him his armor, but the Jew refused to give him back his armor. Then Ali and the Jew went to judge Shurayh and told him what happened. The judge asked for evidence, and then Ali told him that his sons would testify, but the judge told him that a son’s testimony cannot be accepted. The Jew said, “The judge judges against Ali, the prince of the faithful! I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. This is actually your armor, it fell from you at night; while you were riding your camel and I took it.”(391).

• Yahya bin Mohammed said, “I attended Musa bin Ishak’s Council in the mosque. A Jew came seeking Musa’s arbitration, so Musa went to him and arbitrated between him and his friend, and managed to convince the Jew to convert to Islam.”(392).

• One of the Ansar who were on a conquest with the Prophet, peace be upon him, had his armor stolen. The man went to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and told him that Tohme bin Iberg stole his armor. Then the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered them to summon Tohme, yet the thief threw the armor in the house of an innocent Jew (to frame him), so that they would find the armor in that man’s house and accuse him of theft instead of Tohme. He asked some people of his clan to protect him and cover up for him. Thereupon, he and his friends went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and told him that Tohme is innocent and that a Jew stole the armor, thus Allah revealed, “And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.”, “They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah, and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as he does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah, of what they do, encompassing.”

• Ibn Jarir al-Tabari said, “A man stole an iron armor, in the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and framed a Jew. The Jew said, “By God, I did not steal the armor Abu al-Qasim. Indeed the man who had stolen it placed it in my house to frame me.” The man’s friends tried to cover up for him by saying, “O Messenger of Allah, this Jew disbelieves in Allah!” Thus, Allah revealed, “And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.”, “Here you are – those who argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life – but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will [then] be their representative?”, ” But whoever earns an offense or a sin and then blames it on an innocent [person] has taken upon himself a slander and manifest sin.”(393)

Tolerance in Jihad:

The Prophet, peace be upon him, identified the provisions of Jihad in the Hadith narrated by Buraidah(394). And they are:

1. To not engage in any battle before calling people to Islam.

2. To not kill women, boys, civilians, and priests.

3. The prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

4. To fulfill promises and charters.

• Buraidah said: “When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent a commander of an army, he would exhort him concerning himself to be pious, and he would exhort him to be good to those who are with him among the Muslims. He would say: ‘Fight in the Name of Allah, in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah, and do not steal from the spoils of war or be treacherous, nor mutilate, and do not kill a child. When you meet your enemy among the idolaters, then call them to one of the three options or choices, whichever of them they respond to then accept it from them, and refrain from them. Call them to Islam, and to relocate from their land to the land of Emigrants. Inform them that if they do that, then they will have similar to what those who emigrated have, and from them will be required similar to what is required from those who have emigrated. And if they refuse to relocate, then inform them that they will be like the Bedouins among the Muslim, and they will be treated the same as Bedouins are treated. There is no war spoils or Fay’ for them, unless they fight along with the Muslims. If they refuse then seek aid from Allah against them and fight them. (395)

• Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to one of his governors, “It has been passed down to us that when the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent out a raiding party, he would say to them, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah, in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the booty, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.’ Say the same to your armies and raiding parties, Allah willing. Peace be upon you.” (396)

• Umar and Abu Baker used to say to their army, “‘Fight in the Name of Allah, in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah, and do not steal from the spoils of war or be treacherous, nor mutilate, and do not kill a child.”(397)

• Abu Al-Bakhtari said, “A Muslim Army, whose commander was Salman Al-Farisi, besieged one of the Persian castles. They said: ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said, ‘Leave me to call them (to Islam) as I heard the Messenger of Allah call them.’ So Salman went to them and said, ‘I am only a man from among you, a Persian, and you see that the Arabs obey me. If you become Muslims then you will have the likes of what we have, and from you will be required that which is required from us. If you refuse, and keep your religion, then we will leave you to it, and you will give us the Jizyah from your hands while you are submissive.’ He said to them in Persian, ‘And you are other than praiseworthy and if you refuse then we will equally resist you.’ They said, ‘We will not give you the Jizyah, we will fight you instead.’ So they said, ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said, ‘No. ‘So he called them to the same (things) for three days, and then he said, ‘Charge them.'” He said, “So we charged them, and we conquered the castle.”(398)

• Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Ali bin Abi Talib to some people and ordered him to not fight them until he calls them to Islam(399).

• Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, called people to Islam before fighting them.”(400).

• Abu ibn Ka’b said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked us whether we called some of the prisoners to Islam, or not. We said, ‘No’, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered us to release them and recited these two verses, “O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner.”,” And this Qur’an was revealed to me that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches.”(401).

• Khalid Bin Saeed said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to call people to Islam before fighting them, when he sent him to Yemen. (402)

• Abu Wael said that Khalid ibn al-Walid called the Persians to Islam, before fighting them. (403)

• Ibn ‘Umar said that a woman was found killed in one of the expeditions of the Messenger of Allah, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, rebuked that, and prohibited killing women and children. (404)

• Ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade those who fought ibn Abi Huqayq (a treacherous Jewish clan from Madina) to kill women and children.”(405)

• Ibn Jareed said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say to every raiding party he sent, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the booty, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.'(406)

• IbnAbaas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to say to every raiding party he sent, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the spoils, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.”(407)

• Al-Aswad Bin Sare’ said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, prohibited the killing of children.(408)

• Amr ibn Al-Hamek said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, prohibited the killing of innocent non-Muslims.(409)

• Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered them to not kill children, women and the elderly.”(410)

• Rabah bin Rabi said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent a man to Khalid ibn al-Walid to order him to not kill women, when a woman was found killed in one of the expeditions,”(411).

• Bakr bin Sawada said that the Muslim armies never attacked monks, for they have been ordered to not kill them. (412)

• Thabit Bin Hajaj Al-Kilabi said, “Abu Bakr ordered the people to not kill Priests.”(413).

• Mujahid said, “Muslim armies are not allowed to kill children in the war, women, or the elderly, they are also not allowed to burn food, palm trees, damage homes, or cut fruitful trees (414).

• Yahya ibn said, “Abu Bakr sent armies to Syria, and ordered Yazeed ibn Abi Sufyan, to not kill children in the war, women, or the elderly, and to not burn food, palm trees, damage homes, or cut fruitful trees (415).

• Yahya Al Ghassani said, “I wrote to Omar bin Abdul Aziz to ask him about this verse,” Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.”[Baqarah: 190]. He said, “Transgression refers to women and children.”(416).

• Khalid bin Ma’daan said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade mutilation.”(417)

• Makhoul said, ” The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade mutilation.” (418)

• Musab bin Omair said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered his companions in the day of Badr, to be kind to prisoners, thus they gave me lunch, dinner and dates.”(419)

• Omar bin al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him, ordered Muslims to fulfill their covenants with non-Muslims.” (420)

• Talha bin Abdullah bin Khuzai said that Omar bin al-Khattab, ordered them to not break their promises with non-Muslims.” (421).

• Ibn Salamah said, “Omar bin Al-Khattab sent us a letter when we were in khanqan, and told us to not break our fast during the morning until the crescent appears clear to us, and told us that once we besiege a fortress, we must guarantee peoples’ safety, if they refrain from fighting and ask us for protection.” (422).

• Shafiq said, “Once a Muslim promises to protect another man, then he must fulfill his promise.”(423)

• Maimon Ben Mehran said, “Muslims must fulfill their promises with non-Muslims, and keep ties with non-Muslim relatives.” (424)

• Abdul Rahman ibn Yazeed said, “Salman’s army besieged a palace, and conquered it, thus the people sought protection so we gave them our oath of protection. We left a sick man in the palace and went back. Then an army from Basra, which did not know about our promise of protection, attacked the palace, killed the sick man, and took women and children as prisoners, so Salman said to them, “Take women and children back to the palace, and Omar will judge the matter of the murdered man.” (425).

• Ibn Surakha said, “Abu Abeida wrote to the people of DeirTtiyaaa, and told them that he will he ensure the protection of their blood, houses, churches, and wealth, as long as they fulfill their promise with Muslims.” (426)

• Mohammed bin Sooqah said, “I was sitting with Ata ibn Rabah, when a man came to him and told him that a man promised his clan a certain amount of money once they freed him, so Rabah ordered him to fulfill his promise and when he said they were non-Muslims, he still insisted that he must fulfill his promise.” (427)

• Abu Atiya Hamdani said that Omar bin al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave a non-Muslim clan his oath of protection. (428)

• Fadil Alriqashi said, “Omar offered his oath of protection to a Jewish city he besieged, thus they surrendered without a fight.”(429).

Tolerance in the Islamic Tax:

• Abu Raja Al-Khorasani said, “Omar bin Abdul-Aziz, sent a letter to Adi bin Ertah in Basra, and asked him to collect the Islamic tax from the non-Muslims who can pay it, and to exempt the old and poor non-Muslims from the Islamic tax, just like Omar bin Al-Kattab did.”(430)

• Ka’b ibn Alqamah said, “Arafa Bin Harith fought with Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl in Yemen, in the apostates battles. He passed by a Christian from the people of Egypt, and called him to Islam, but the Christian insulted the Prophet, peace be upon him. Arafa then complained to Amr ibn al-Aas who said, ‘We gave them our Oath of protection.’ Then Arafa siad, ‘Our oath of protection necessitates that we protect their houses, wealth and churches, as long as they fulfill their oath and not insult our Prophet, peace be upon him!’ Amribn al-Aas said, ‘That is true indeed'”(431).

• Abu al-Janoob said, “We have to protect the people who we have given our oath of protection to.”(432)

• Omar, May Allah be pleased with him, ordered Islamic tax collectors to exempt, women, the old and poor non-Muslims from the Islamic tax (433).

Part II

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate the tolerance of Islam:

Definition of Tolerance:

Tolerance is the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing, and includes forgiveness and lenience. (434-435)

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate the tolerance of Islam:

• Islam is a tolerant religion which relieved mankind of the burden and the shackles which were upon them, as Allah said, “And makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them.”[Al-Arraf: 157].

• Islam was tolerant with non-Muslims in many issues and provisions, and gave them their rights.

• The Mercy Islam calls for includes all human beings, as Allah said, ‘My mercy encompasses everything.”[Al-Arraf: 156].
The eminent scholar Sa’di said that Allah’s mercy encompasses everything: all creatures, and all humans, Muslims and non-Muslims. (436-437) Ibn Battal said, “Islam calls us to be merciful with Muslims and non-Muslims, and all creatures, to give them food and look after them.” (438).

Islam Teaches Muslims to be Merciful with non-Muslims:

A. The Prophet, peace be upon him, told his Companions that Allah only shows His Mercy to those who are merciful. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, we are all merciful.” He told them that they must be merciful with all people.

B. The Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to invoke Allah’s wrath upon non-Muslims when he was asked to, and told his Companions that he was sent as a mercy to mankind. Also, the Messenger, peace be upon him, invoked the Blessings of Allah upon the Mudar tribe, although it was a hostile tribe, when a man from Mudar came to him seeking water.

C. The Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed for non-Muslims’ well-being, and asked Allah to Guide them.

D. Muslims are allowed to give food to needy hostile non-Muslims, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to withhold wheat from Quraysh, as Thumamah narrated.

Islam is the Religion of Guidance:

A. Islam seeks to guide all people to the right path, for there are a lot of Hadiths that call Muslims to invite Jews, Christians, non-Muslim Kings, and non-Muslim people to Islam.

B. Islam called Muslims to invite non-Muslims with wisdom and kind exhortation, as Allah said, “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and kind exhortation, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.” [Al-Nahl: 125]. Ibn Kathir said, “Allah the Almighty commanded His Messenger Muhammad, peace be upon him, to invite people to Islam with wisdom (Qur’an and Sunnah) and kind exhortation, and to persuade them using rational debates.” (439-440). Ibn Kathir also said, “Allah asked mosses in this verse, ‘Speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear’ [Taha: 44] to speak to the arrogant Pharaoh with gentle speech, in order to win him over.” (441). The Prophet, peace be upon him, was also kind to Thumamah, and thus he converted to Islam due to the Prophet’s kindness.

C. Muslims should call non-Muslims to Islam through demonstrating the virtues of this religion, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, called Al-Waleed Bin Al-Mughirah to Islam, and recited this verse to him, “Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression.” [Al-Nahl: 90].

D. Muslims should send ambassadors to non-Muslims countries to call them to Islam.

E. To encourage the People of the Book to convert to Islam through indicating their twofold reward, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There are three who will be given a twofold reward: a man who has a slave woman whom he treats well and educates well, then he manumits her and marries her; a slave who fulfills his duty toward Allah and toward his master; and a believer from among the People of the Book.”

F. Muslims can address non-Muslim kings and leaders with reverence, as the Prophet peace be upon him, did with Heraclius.

G. Muslims may pray for non-Muslims’ guidance, as the Prophet peace be upon him, did with the tribes of Daws and Thaqif.

H. Muslims should be kind with non-Muslim ambassadors and delegations, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, did with the messengers of Najran.

I. Muslims can use non-Muslims’ inventions and methods, as long as they don’t violate the rules of Islam, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, used a ring to seal the messages he sent to non-Muslims since they didn’t accept unsealed messages.

Tolerance of belief and worship:

Allah said, “There shall be no compulsion in religion.” [Al-Baqarah: 256] Ibn Kathir said, “This verse emphasizes that no one is allowed to force anyone to convert to Islam, for some Ansar prior to Islam used to vow to convert their children to Judaism if they lived. However, the Bani Al-Nadeer Jews were exiled from Medinah after Islam, and some of the Ansar children went with them after they became Jews, then some parents said, ‘By Allah we will not allow them to go with them (i.e. we will not allow them convert to Judaism), then Allah the Almighty revealed this verse, ‘There shall be no compulsion in religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong.'” (442).

Islamic Law guarantees non-Muslims’ freedom of belief, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, allowed the Christian delegation of Najran to perform their Christian prayer. (443). Also, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave the people of Jerusalem his oath of protection, and ensured the safety of their wealth, churches, and lives. When Khalid Ibn Al-Walid conquered Syria, he signed a treaty with the Romans stipulating that Muslims would not destroy their churches, and that the Romans would not ring their church bells except for prayer (444). Moreover, Swaid Bin Muqrin gave the people of Dhustan and Gorgan his oath of protection, and ensured the safety of their wealth, religion, and lives. (445)

Likewise, lots of Muslim scholars stopped the Ottoman Sultan Selim I from exiling Jews and Christians from the Ottoman Empire, and told him that he was not allowed to exile Christians and Jews from their homes as long as they pay the Islamic poll tax (446). Also, Sultan Suleiman asked the Turkish governor of Jerusalem, to clean the Wailing Wall (which the Jews consider sacred), and to allow Jews to visit it, as stated in the July 1, 1967 issue of the official bulletin issued by the Government of Israel in Bombay entitled, “News from Israel.” (447).

The protection of treaty-makers:

• Muslims are required to protect treaty-makers, and may not subject them to injustice or oppression, as the Messenger of Allah upon, peace be upon him, and the caliphs commanded. Also, Abu Yusuf advised Harun to protect and look after treaty-makers, and to not subject them to injustice or oppression (448). And Imam Ouzai stopped Prince Saleh Bin Ali from exiling some treaty-makers from the Lebanon Mount, after the incident that took place between them (449).

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered us to be kind to slaves, be they Muslims or non-Muslims, and Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, forgave Abu Lu’lu’ah (his murderer), and ordered his heir to be kind with him.

The Sanctity of their Blood:

• Islam made the blood of treaty-makers inviolable, and warned Muslims of subjecting treaty-makers to oppression or injustice.

• Islam imposed a compensation payment upon whoever kills a treaty-maker by mistake, as Allah said, “And if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty – then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave.” Abu Bakr and Umar made the compensation payment of killing a Jew or a Christian the same as the compensation payment of killing a Muslim.

• Islam warned Muslims of treachery with Muslims or non-Muslims.

• Muslims must ensure the safety of all non-Muslims who enter Muslim countries, such as ambassadors, diplomats and traders.

The Sanctity of Property and Honor:

• All Muslim scholars have emphasized the sanctity of the funds and honor of non-Muslims. Hence, Muslims must ensure the safety of non-Muslims’ wealth, property, honor, and lives. Muslims have guaranteed the rights of non-Muslims in Islamic societies throughout the ages, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker shall not smell the scent of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.” (450).

• Islam calls Muslims to give treaty-makers their rights.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, called Muslims to protect non-Muslims’ honor.

• Islam calls Muslims to ensure the safety of non-Muslims’ property and wealth.

• Imam Al-Nawawi said, “Non-Muslims’ wealth is as inviolable as Muslims’ wealth.” (451). Ibn Hajar said, “Muslims should always be fair with Muslims and non-Muslims, and protect treaty-makers’ property and wealth.” (452).
Islam forbade Injustice and oppression:

• Islam forbade Muslims from subjecting non-Muslims to oppression and injustice, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Beware of the supplication of the oppressed as there is no screen between his supplication and Allah.” Shaykh Ibn Baaz said on his official website, “Muslims shall not subject non-Muslims or treaty-makers to oppression and injustice, for they are supposed to protect treaty-makers’ honor and property, and avoid treason and fraud.” (453).

• Islam forbids verbally abuse of non-Muslims.

• Islam called for the protection of non-Muslims’ honor. Shihabuddin Quraafi and Ibn Abidin said that Islam even forbids Muslims from verbally abusing non-Muslims and treaty-makers. (454-455).
The Fulfillment of Oaths and Covenants:

• Islam calls Muslims to fulfill covenants and charters, and warns them of revoking treaties, as Allah said, “Fulfill the covenant of Allah when you have taken it, and do not break oaths after their confirmation, while you have made Allah a Witness over you. Indeed, Allah knows what you do.” [An-Nahl: 91]. He also said, “Fulfill [every] commitment. Indeed, the commitment is ever [that about which one will be] questioned.” [Isra: 34]. “[those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous.” [Baqarah: 177]. Islam also forbade Muslims from helping other Muslims against treaty-makers and forbade them from revoking their treaties, as Allah said, “And if they seek your help in religion, then you must help them, except against a people who have a treaty with you. Allah is seeing of what you do.” [Anfal: 72]. “Excepting those of the idolaters with whom you have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfill their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him).” [Anfal: 72].

The Prophet, peace be upon him, himself fulfilled the convent he had with the non-Muslims and did not fight them. He also called Muslims to fulfill their covenants with non-Muslims (456), as he said, “On the Day of Judgment there will be a flag for every person guilty of the breach of faith. It will be raised in proportion to the extent of his guilt; and there is no guilt of treachery more serious than the one committed by the ruler of men.” (457).

• Accordingly, Islam regards the covenants with treaty-makers sacred, and warns Muslims of treason. Accordingly, the Islamic principle of “the sanctity of treaties in peace and war” has contributed to the stability of the Islamic nation, international peace, security, and increased the international trust in the Islamic nation. Moreover, Islamic tolerance with non-Muslims has always been emphasized in the Qur’an and Sunnah, the history of the Righteous Caliphs, the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Ottomans, the Mamluks, and others, whereby non-Muslim minorities have lived securely, practicing their religious rites while living with Muslims, unlike Muslim minorities who nowadays suffer from the oppression and the injustice of non-Muslim countries. (458).

• A Muslim is not allowed to assault a non-Muslim, as long as the non-Muslim is committed to the covenant and respects the Islamic laws. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to betray treaty-makers nor break their covenants, as Ibn Hajar said, for some Jewish and Christian minorities have lived in Muslim countries such as Egypt and Syria for centuries and are still protected by the Islamic society. (459).

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, fulfilled the Hudaibia peace treaty, which he made with the non-Muslims from Quraysh. Abu Jandal fled from Quraysh and came to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, after the treaty was signed, yet Quraysh insisted on taking Abu Jandal back, and when he refused to go back to Quraysh, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to go back and told him that he could not break the treaty he made with Quraysh nor betray them, and told him that Allah would save him. The Prophet, peace be upon him, also fulfilled the Taibieen covenant which he made with Quraysh before Islam.

• Islam regards the fulfillment of covenants a virtuous deed, whether with Muslims or non-Muslims, friends or foes. (460).
Bukhari included the following sections in his Saheeh:

A. Reconciliation with non-Muslims, and the sin that befalls whoever breaks covenants.

B. The merit of the fulfillment of covenants.

C. The Imam invokes Allah’s wrath upon whoever breaks his covenant.

D. Should Muslims forgive non-Muslims who revoked treaties?

E. The commandments of the protection of treaty-makers.

Ibn Taymiyah said, “Al-Bukhari narrated that Omar Bin Al-Khattab said in his speech after he was stabbed, ‘I advise my successor to abide by the rules and regulations concerning the ones protected by Allah and His Prophet (treaty-makers), to fulfill their contracts completely and fight for them and not to tax (overburden) them beyond their capabilities.'” The Prophet, peace be upon him said, “Whoever kills a person granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years.” (461).

Moreover, Abu Obeid said, “The Romans made peace with Mu’awiyah and asked him to pay them a certain amount of money, yet the Romans betrayed Muslims and revoked the treaty. However, Mu’awiya refused to kill the Roman hostages he had, and decided to release them, and said, ‘Fulfillment in the face of treason rather than betrayal for treason.'” (462).

• Muslims are not allowed to assault ambassadors and diplomats, for Ibn Al-Qayyim said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, never killed nor assaulted messengers and the delegations of his non-Muslim foes. He also said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, never forced Islam on anyone. He used to call people to Islam and he allowed whoever chose a religion other than Islam to follow and belong to his tribe. When Quraysh sent Abu Rafi as a messenger to the Prophet, peace be upon him, the Prophet called him to Islam and he decided to convert, yet the Prophet asked him to go back to Quraysh so as not to break his covenant or hold a messenger captive.

• Islam calls Muslims to fulfill their covenants with both friends and foes.
Ibn Al-Qayyim said, “The Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to make covenants with some non-Muslim enemies, and the Prophet did not disapprove of that.” (463).

• Muslims can make a truce with enemies, and may even request a truce if it benefits Muslims. Ibn Al-Qayyim said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make peace and hold a truce with non-Muslims in any time and place.” (465). He also said, “The Imam can even call for a truce with non-Muslims if it benefits Muslims.” (466). Ibn Hajar said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make peace and hold a truce with non-Muslims.” (467).

• Muslims can hold truces with non-Muslims at any time, for Bukhari compiled a chapter on reconciliation with non-Muslims for three days or a given time, and a chapter on reconciliation with non-Muslims for an uncertain time. Ibn Al-Qayyim said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make a truce with non-Muslims for an uncertain period of time, as long as it benefits Muslims.” (468).

• Muslims can make alliances with non-Muslims, especially in the case of weakness or need, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, foretold that Muslims would make an alliance with the Romans one day.
The Establishment of International Relations:

• International relations in Islam are based on peace, cooperation and compassion, for Islam forbids aggression. Allah said, “O you, who believe, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.” [Al-Baqarah: 208]. He also said, “Cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Al-Maeda: 2]. “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.” [Baqarah: 190].

• Interest in international relations between Muslims and non-Muslims began in the Meccan stage, when the Prophet, peace be upon him, advised some of his Companions to emigrate to Abyssinia to flee from the injustice of Quraysh. This can be expressed as the Prophet seeking political asylum for his companions.

• When the Prophet, peace be upon him, established the Islamic state in Madinah, he sent messages to the major countries in the region (Byzantium, Persia, Egypt, Yemen and Abyssinia) to calls their leaders and people to Islam. After eighty years, the Islamic state became the largest empire in the region, stretching from India in the east to Spain in the West, and had common borders with many non-Muslim countries. Through time, the Islamic countries signed agreements and treaties with non-Muslim countries, which included commitments, rules, conditions and principles that contributed to the development of the international Islamic law.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, made treaties with non-Muslim groups after the establishment of the new Islamic state in Madina, such as the treaty of Hudaybiyah, which guaranteed that both parties wouldn’t attack each other, and thus spread security and peace in the Arabian Peninsula after the violent conflicts that had taken place between Muslims and Non-Muslims.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, made other treaties with the Jews and the Christians, who were living inside or outside of the Arabian Peninsula, namely, the treaty he made with the Christians of Najran, and the Fadak, Ayla and Taima Jews, which guaranteed non-Muslims’ independent rule from Madinah. Also, the Islamic poll tax was not mandatory in all agreements and treaties with the People of the Book, for the Madinah Treaty that took place between the Prophet and the Jews of Madinah was the first peaceful treaty that did not include the payment of the Islamic tax, and was more of a friendship treaty which regulated the relationship between the Jews and Muslims, and established security and peace, in addition to the treaty the Prophet, peace be upon him, made with the Damra and Ghaffar Jews, which was based on the same terms. (469).
Charity to non-Muslims:

• Islam called Muslims to be kind and compassionate with both Muslims and non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” Not upon you, [O Muhammad], is [responsibility for] their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills. And whatever good you [believers] spend is for yourselves, and you do not spend except seeking the countenance of Allah. And whatever you spend of good – it will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.” [Baqarah: 272]. “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. “[Mumtahina: 8], “And they give food in spite of love for it to the needy, the orphan, and the captive” [Al-Insan: 8]. And Asma’ bint Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “My mother came to me while she was still a polytheist, so I asked Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘My mother, who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. Shall I maintain relations with her?’ He replied, ‘Yes, maintain relations with your mother'”.

• Imam Nawawi included in the book of alms the chapter of “Paying alms and charity to relatives, spouse, children, parents, even if they were non-Muslim”, which he has derived from the hadith of Abu Talha al- Ansari who wanted to donate his land, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, told him to donate it to his relatives.

• There is almost a consensus among Muslim scholars that Muslims are allowed to give charity to poor non-Muslims. Ibn Baaz also said in his official Web site, that Muslims are allowed to donate blood to non-Muslims, and that they will even be rewarded for this good deed. (470)

Arbitrating between non-Muslims and accepting their Testimony:

• Muslims are allowed to arbitrate between treaty-makers if they come seeking Islam’s arbitration, as Allah said, “And if you judge, judge between them with justice. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” [Al-Maeda: 42 ]

• Muslims are allowed to accept non-Muslims’ testimony, as Allah said, “O you who have believed, testimony [should be taken] among you when death approaches one of you at the time of bequest – [that of] two just men from among you or two others from outside if you are traveling through the land and the disaster of death should strike you. Detain them after the prayer and let them both swear by Allah if you doubt [their testimony, saying], “We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony of Allah. Indeed, we would then be of the sinful.” [Al-Maeda: 106]

Accepting their Intercession:

Muslims may accept the intercession of non-Muslims in some cases, for Prophet, peace be upon him, talked about the war prisoners of Badr saying, “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake.”

Greeting them and shaking hands with them:

• Muslims may greet Jews and Christians by saying peace upon those who follow guidance, as in the message of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Hercules.

• Muslims may greet the Council in which both Muslims and non-Muslims co-exist.

• They may greet them by waiving their hands, as IbnMas’ood did.

• They may greet them with the greetings they exchange with each other.

• Muslims may greet back no-Muslims, for Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back a Jew, a Christian, or a Megian, for Allah said, ” And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet [in return] with one better than it or [at least] return it [in a like manner]. Indeed, Allah is ever, over all things, an Accountant.” [An-Nisa: 86].

• Muslims may shake hands with non-Muslims as Sufian At-Thaori, Abdul Razzaq and other said.

• Muslims should be kind to whoever is kind, for Ibn Abbas said that he would even be kind to Pharaoh had he been kind to him.

• Muslims should be kind to non-Muslim friends, for Ibn Mas’ood said that he and Alqamah came back from Hira with some non-Muslims, and when they were about to part ways, Alqama greeted them and told IbnMas’ood that they are their travel companions and that they have the right to be greeted.

Asking them for Permission:

• Islam emphasized that the teachings of Islam include both Muslims and non-Muslims.

• Islam ordered Muslims to ask both Muslims and non-Muslims for permission, for Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said, “Muslims are not allowed to enter non-Muslims’ places without asking their permission”.

Honoring non-Muslims:

• Muslims should be kind and generous with non-Muslims, feed them and honor them, as IbnHajar said in his book “High demands”.

• Muslims may call non-Muslims by their nick-names.

The Permissibility of Eating the Slaughters of the People of the Book:

• Eating the Sacrifices and the foods of the people of the book is lawful in Islam, as Allah said, “This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.”[Al-Maeda: 5].

• Eating the foods of Non-Muslims (except for meat) is lawful in Islam, for companions ate the cheese which was made by the Magi.

Buying and Selling and other Transactions:

• Islam allowed Muslims to deal with non-Muslims in financial transactions, for Ibn Hibbaan included in his book, the chapter of “The permissibility of Selling and Buying from non-Muslims”, and Bukhari included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Employing a non- Muslim when necessary”, and the chapter of “The partnership between Muslims and non-Muslims in farming”. Ibn al-Qayyim also said about Selling and Buying from non-Muslims, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, bought a merchandize from a Jew, and mortgaged his armor to a Jew for thirty ‘Wasak’ of barley, thus this indicates that selling and buying from non-Muslims, and other financial transactions are lawful.” (471).

• Mortgage, loan, partnership with non-Muslims and other transactions are all permissible in Islam, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, mortgaged his armor to a Jew. Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to deal with non-Muslims in financial transactions, such as, Mortgage, loan, partnership and other transactions. Also, scholars believe that the Prophet, peace be upon him mortgaged his armor to a Jew in order to teach Muslims that Islam allows them to carry out financial transactions with non-Muslims.”(472).

• Muslims may also be employed by non-Muslims, since Ali worked for a Jew.

• Muslims may also travel to non-Muslim countries for trade and work.

• Muslims may intercede for non-Muslims

• They may trust sincere non-Muslims, for Ibn Hajar said about the Hudaibiya treaty, “This treaty indicates that Muslims are allowed to trust and take the advice of steadfast and trustworthy non-Muslims.”Ibn Taymiya and Ibn Khattabi said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Khuza’a, a non-Muslim, as a spy and trusted him in what he reported and took his advice, for the Khuza’a had always supported the Prophet”(474). Ibn Taymya Also said, “Abu Talib used to protect and defend the Prophet, peace be upon him, which proves that there are a lot of trustworthy non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75].Therefore, Muslim are allowed to entrust steadfast non-Muslims with their money and other financial transactions.” (475). Ibn al-Qayyim said, “This Hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to cooperate with trustworthy non-Muslims in Jihad in order to conquer their enemy.” (476)

Using and Learning their Science and Knowledge:

Judamat al-Asadiyyah said that she heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, Say, “I intended to (ghailah) during pregnancy, but I considered the Greeks and the Persians, and saw that they practiced it without any injury being caused to their children thereby. Malik said, ‘Ghailah means that a man has intercourse with his wife while she is suckling a child’. Thus, this indicates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, resorted to the knowledge of the Romans although they were non-Muslims.
In addition, when the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, consulted Omar Ibn al Khattab, about what to do with funds, Khalid bin al-Walid said that the kings of Levant used to write down the funds in a Diwan “Document”, thus Omar took his advice. (477) Alusi said, “Muslims are allowed to use non-Muslims’ knowledge, and to employ non-Muslims in other than governmental positions.” (478)

Treatment and Medication:

Muslims may exchange experiences and doctors with non-Muslims, for IbnTaymiya said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Khuza’a, a non-Muslim, as a spy and trusted him in what he reported and took his advice, for the Prophet trusted the Khuza’a tribe since it always supported him, which proves that there are a lot of trustworthy non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75].Therefore, Muslim are allowed to entrust steadfast non-Muslims with their money and other financial transactions and use their medication.” (479)
Ibn al-Qayyim said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used Ibn al-Arkat as a guide in the time of migration when he was a disbeliever, which indicates that Muslims are allowed to resort to the help of non-Muslim doctors.”(480)

Learning their Language:

Muslims may learn non-Muslims’ language, for the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked Zaid ibn Thabit to learn Jews’ language.

The Rights of non-Muslim neighbors:

• There are three types of neighbors, a non-Muslim neighbor who has one right which is the right of a neighbor, and a Muslim neighbor who has two rights, the right of a neighbor and the right of a Muslim, and the relative Muslim neighbors, who has three rights, the right of a neighbor and the right of a Muslim, and the right of the relative.

• Islam enjoined kindness to neighbors, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, called Muslims to be kind to neighbors, and this order includes non-Muslim neighbors. Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in his official website, about Muslims’ duty towards non-Muslims, “Muslims should also be kind to non-Muslim neighbors, advise them, give them gifts, and give them charity if they are poor.”

Mingling with non-Muslims:

Muslims may mingle and interact with the people of the book and other non-Muslims for religious needs, such as to call them to Islam, sell and buy from them, and arbitrate between them. Ibn Hibbaan included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims”, and Ibn al-Qayyim said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, received the delegation of Najran in the mosque, and this indicates that Muslims can allow non-Muslims to enter the Mosques so that they could listen to the Quran, especially if they seek their conversion to Islam.”(481-482). He said, “This story indicates that Muslims may enter reasonable debates with the People of the Book in order to persuade them to convert to Islam.”(483)
Ibn Hajar said about the Hudaibiya treaty, “”This treaty indicates that Muslims are allowed to trust and take the advice of steadfast and trustworthy non-Muslims, and seek non-Muslim doctors.”(484) and the Prophet, peace be upon, mingled with Jews in Madina, called them to Islam, and bought goods from them.

Visiting Non-Muslim Patients:

Muslims may visit non-Muslim sick friends and colleagues, for Ibn al-Qayyim said about visiting non-Muslim patients, “Someone asked Abu Abdullah about visiting a sick Christian man. He said, ‘You may visit him, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, visited a sick Jew.’ And Abu Masood Alosbhana said, ‘I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal about visiting a sick Christian neighbor? He said, ‘Yes you may visit him'” (485)

Praying for their guidance:

Muslims may pray for non-Muslims’ guidance and well-being as stated in the previous Hadiths.

Visiting the Graves of non-Muslims:

Muslims may visit the graves of non-Muslim relatives, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, visited his mother’s grave.

Accepting their Gifts:

• Muslims mayexchange gifts with non-Muslims and accept their gifts as well, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, accepted the gifts of Cyrus and other kings. Also, The Bukhaari included in his ‘Sahih”, the chapter of “Accepting gifts from delegations”, and the chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”. And Abu Dawood included in his “Sunan”, the chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”.

• Muslims may send gifts to non-Muslims, for Omar Al-Khattab sent a gift to his non-Muslim brother.

Kinship:

• Allah ordered Muslims to keep ties with their relatives, albeit Muslims or non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” Say (O Muhammad, unto mankind): I ask of you no fee therefor, save loving kindness among kinsfolk. And whoso scored a good deed we add unto its good for him.” Ibn Katheer said, “This verse calls the non-Muslims of Quraish to be kind to the Prophet, peace be upon him, since they had kinship with the Prophet.” (486)

• Muslims can keep ties with their non-Muslim relatives, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “But they (that family) have kinship (Rahm) with me and I will be good and dutiful to them.” And Al-Bukhari included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Being dutiful to non-Muslim parents.

Befriending the people of the book:

The Prophet, peace be upon him, and the companions used to wish for the Romans’ victory since they are the people of the Book, as Allah the Almighty said, “The Romans have been defeated in the nearer land, and they, after their defeat will be victorious, Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice” [Ar-Room: 1-5], while Quraish wanted the Persians to victor since there were idolaters just like then.

Congratulating Non-Muslims:

Non-Muslims are allowed to congratulate non-Muslims for a newborn, marriage or others, and Ibn al-Qayyim said in the chapter of congratulating non-Muslims for a newborn, marriage or others, “Ahmed allowed it, yet prohibited it later on, however Muslims are allowed to congratulate non-Muslims as long as they don’t congratulate them for religious matters. For Congratulating non-Muslims on their religious festivals and holidays is a taboo by consensus.” (487)
Attending their Funerals:

Muslims may attend the funerals of non-Muslims, for Ibn al-Qayyim said in the chapter of “Attending their Funerals, “Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila said, ‘Sahl bin Hunaif and Qais bin Sa’d bin ‘Ubadah were in Al-Qadisiyyah when a funeral passed by them, so they stood up and it was said to them, ‘It is one of the local people.’ They said, ‘A funeral passed the Messenger of Allah and he stood up, and it was said to him, ‘It Is a Jew’s’. He said, ‘Is it not a soul?'”.

Muhammad Bin Musa said that Abdullah told him that a Muslim may attend the funeral of a non-Muslim, for al-Harith Ibn AbiRabi’a attended his mothers’ funeral. And Hanbal said, “Abu Abdullah told me that a Muslim is allowed to attend the funeral of his non-Muslim relative.”(488)

Consoling non-Muslims:

Muslims may console non-Muslims, for Ibn al-Qayyim, said in the chapter of consoling non-Muslim, “Hareem said, ‘I heard Al-Ajlah console a Christian, by saying, ‘Be patient’. And Al-Athram said, ‘Ibrahim said, ‘If you wish to console the people of the book, then say, ‘May Allah increase your wealth and children, and prolong your life’. And Harb said that Isaac told him that a Muslim can console a non-Muslim by saying, ‘ May Allah increase your wealth and children’ “(489).
Also, Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in his official website about loyalty and disavowal, “Muslims are allowed to console non-Muslims” (490).

Bequeathing non-Muslims:

• A Muslim is not allowed to inherit a non-Muslim, and vice versa, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, demonstrated.

• A Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim relative, for al-Bukhari included in the Book of Commandments, the chapter of “Bequeathing a non-Muslim relative”. And Qatada and Atta said that a Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim relative, for Allah said, “Except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest].”

Marriage with the People of the Book:

• Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Islam allowed Muslim men to marry the women of the people of the book, for Allah said, “And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you.”[Al-Maeda: 5] (491)

Narrating their Stories:

Muslims may narrate the stories of the people of the book, for Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Relate traditions from the children of Israel; there is no harm.”
Kindness to non-Muslims:
Islam called Muslims to be kind to peaceful non-Muslims, and to also be dutiful to non-Muslim parents, as Allah said, “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” [Mumtahina: 8-9]. ” But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me [in repentance]”[Luqman: 15]. Asma daughter of Abu Bakr reported, ‘I said to the Messenger of Allah, my mother, who is inclined or scared has come to me. Should I treat her well? He said, ‘Yes’. And Quraafi said that Muslims should be kind to peaceful non-Muslims and pray for their guidance. (492)

Accepting their Invitation:

Muslims may accept non-Muslims’ invitations to weddings and feasts, for the Prophet, Peace be upon him, accepted a Jew’s invitation to barley and bread.

Freeing non-Muslim Slaves:

Islam enjoined kindness to slaves and urged Muslims to free them.

Pardoning non-Muslims for their Misdeeds:

• Islam called Muslims to pardon non-Muslims’ misdeeds, for Ibn Katheer and Mujahed said about the verse, “And you will still observe deceit among them, except a few of them. But pardon them and overlook [their misdeeds]. Indeed, Allah loves the doers of good. “, “Allah the exalted called the Prophet, peace be upon him, to pardon non-Muslims and overlook their misdeeds.”(493)

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, pardoned the Jews who greeted him with,” ‘As-Samu ‘alaikum (Death be upon you)”, and the Jewish woman who poisoned him, and the Jew who cast a spell on him. Also, Khubayb, who was captured and imprisoned by non-Muslims, did not kill nor hurt the non-Muslim child, although he already knew that his parents would kill him.

• The Islamic nation has always ensured the rights of non-Muslim minorities throughout the ages, despite the injustice and oppression that some Muslim minorities were subjected to in some non-Muslim countries. For example, when the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem, they massacred about 70 thousand Muslims, including children and women, and old men. However, Saladin who regained Jerusalem from their hands after 90 years of this massacre; did not hurt nor kill the 100 thousand Christians who lived there. He even allowed them to go back to their countries, and gave them his oath of protection.(494)

Justice with non-Muslims:

Allah called Muslims to be just to non-Muslims albeit friends or foes, for Allah said, “Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct.”[An-Nahel: 90], “And do not let the hatred of a people for having obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram lead you to transgress.” [Al-Maeda: 2]. Also, Ibn Rawahah who was sent to the Jews by the Prophet, peace be upon him, to count their palm trees, said to the Jews, “My hatred for you would not prevent me from being just to you.”
In addition, Ali Ibn abi Taleb asked the Islamic governors and Islamic-tax collectors to be kind to non-Muslim treaty-makers, to overlook their misdeeds, to collect the Islamic-tax from wealthy non-Muslims, and to exempt needy non-Muslims from the tax. (495)

Tolerance in Jihad:

• Jihad for the sake of Allah is the means Muslims resort to in order to face the enemies who oppress non-Muslims, and stand in the face of the call to Islam, for Allah said, “Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.”[Baqarah: 216], ” Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.” [Baqarah: 193], “It is He who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion, although they who associate others with Allah dislike it.” [At-Taowba: 33].

• Jihad in Islam is safeguarded by the provisions and the rules which the Prophet, peace be upon him, demonstrated in the hadith narrated by Buraidah (496).

• Abu Bakr advised the Muslim armies to not mutilate nor kill a small child, an old man, a woman, monks and priests, and to not cut fruit trees, and to not kill sheep, cows or camels. (497)

• Omar Ibn al-Khattab, also advised Muslim armies to not mutilate nor kill a child, an old man, a woman, monks and priests (498).

• Jihad includes the following provisions:

1. The Prohibition of the killing of women, children, old men, and priests.

2. The Prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

3. The Prohibition of fighting before calling people to Islam.

4. Kindness to prisoners.

5. The fulfillment of promises and covenants.

6. The Prohibition of killing messengers and ambassadors.

Ibn al-Qayyim said about Buraydah’s Hadith, “This Hadith indicates that Muslim armies are not allowed to break Covenants, nor mutilate or kill children, old men, women, monks and priests. This Hadith also indicates that Muslims are supposed to call non-Muslims to Islam before fighting them; however Muslims are allowed to fight non-Muslims without calling them to Islam once they transgress. (499)

Moreover, Amr ibn al-Aas called the people of Egypt to Islam before fighting them, and asked his soldiers to not Hasten to a fight before calling them to Islam. Thus, Amr ibn al-Aas called the priests of Egypt to Islam and told them that the Prophet, peacebe upon him, ordered Muslims to be kind to the people of Egypt since they have the right of kinship upon them. Amr also promised to give them his oath of protection if they agree to pay the Islamic tax.” (500). Ibn al-Qayyim also said about the Hadith of the conquest of Mecca, “The Messenger, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers whom Quraish sent, although Quraish broke the covenant, which indicates that Muslims are not allowed to kill the messengers of non-Muslims.” (501-502)

Also, the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill nor harm the messengers of king Khusro, although they came to capture the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he also pardoned the messengers of Musailama the liar.

Tolerance in the Islamic-tax:

• Muslims are not allowed to force non-Muslims to convert to Islam, hence Islam called Muslims to allow non-Muslims to practice their religion and to protect them as long as non-Muslims pay the Islamic-tax, and are committed to the covenant, Allah said, “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] religion.” [Baqarah: 256]

• Muslims are not allowed to enjoin the Islamic-tax on needy or old non-Muslims, for al-Qurtubi said (503), “Muslims are supposed to exempt non-Muslim women, children, old men and priests from the Islamic-tax, and should only collect it from non-Muslim fighters, for Allah said, ” Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled.” [At-Taowba: 29].(504)

• Muslims are not allowed to collect the Islamic-tax from non-Muslims by force or torture if they are not able to pay it, as Ibn al-Qayyim said.(505)

• The Islamic State should look after the poor and needy non-Muslims, for
Omar bin al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him, saw an old Jew asking people for charity, so he asked him, “Why are asking people for charity?” He replied, “I’m an old Jewish man and I need money to pay the Islamic-tax.” Thus, Omar ordered the tax collector to pardon old men and needy non-Muslims from the Islamic-tax, (506).
Also, Khalid ibn al-Walid and Omar bin Abdul-Aziz, ordred tax collectors to pardon needy and old non-Muslims from the tax, and paid for the expenses of needy non-Muslims (507). And Omar, May Allah be pleased with him, asked the government to pay for the expenses of the poor non-Muslims of Damascus. “Hence, Social Security in Islam, is a general principle that includes all the members of society, albeit Muslims or non-Muslims, and thus the Islamic government is supposes to provide food, clothing, shelter, or treatment for all community members.(508)

• Muslims are supposed to protect non-Muslims and ensure their rights, for
Abu Abeida may Allah be pleased with him, returned back the Islamic-tax to the non-Muslims of Levant, when he could not protect them against their enemies, and said, “We are supposed to collect the tax in order to protect you, but since we could not protect you, we must return the tax back to you.” (509). and al-Quraafi said, “Muslims are supposed to fight with non-Muslim treaty-makers against their enemy, since Muslims gave treaty-makers their oath of protection.”(510)

• The Islamic nation must try to free non-Muslim treaty-makers who fall in the hands of the enemy, and pay their ransom. (511), for Ibn Taymiyah asked the Tatar commander “Qtalucheh” to free both the Muslim and non-Muslim prisoners, yet the commander agreed to only free the Muslim prisoners, however Ibn Taymiyyah told him that all non-Muslim prisoners are part of the Islamic nation and that he must release them.
Conclusion:

This research can be summarized in the following points:

1. Islam is the religion of tolerance, and this feature of Islam is not shared by any other religion.

2. Islam’s tolerance includes non-Muslims since Islam ensured the rights of non-Muslims.

3. Islam is keen to guide all people to righteousness.

4. Islam called Muslims to not force anyone to convert to Islam, and to allow non-Muslims to practice their religion.

5. Islam warned Muslims of subjecting the People of the Book and treaty-makers to oppression and injustice.

6. Islam protected non-Muslims’ properties through the imposition of compensation upon whoever assaults a treaty-maker.

7. Muslims May not oppress nor harm non-Muslims.

8. Islam called Muslims to fulfill their promises and covenants, and warned them of breaking their covenants.

9. International Relations in Islam are based on peace, cooperation and compassion.

10. Islam called Muslims to be kind to non-Muslims.

11. Eating the slaughters of the People of the Book is permissible in Islam.

12. Muslims may sign financial contracts with non-Muslims.

13. Muslims may interact and mingle with non-Muslims.

14. The relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in Islam is based on compassion and kindness.

15. Islam called Muslims to pardon non-Muslims’ misdeeds.

16. Islam urged Muslims to look after poor non-Muslims and provide for them, and to protect them from any internal or external assaults.

17. Jihad in Islam is safeguarded by the provisions and the rules which the Prophet, peace be upon him set. And They are as follows:

• The Prohibition of the killing of women, children, old men, and priests.

• The Prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

• The Prohibition of fighting before calling people to Islam.

• Kindness to prisoners.

• The fulfillment of promises and covenants.

• The Prohibition of killing messengers and ambassadors.
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Index of Elevated Hadiths:

• Allah the Exalted has (solved your case), Bilal 197.

• “Did you hear what they said?, They said “(Poison)Death be upon you”, Anas 316.

• Fear the prayer of the oppressed even from an infidel, Anas 94.

• Gather the Jews Here, Abu Huraira 311.

• Embark in the name of Allah, and then fight in the way of Allah, who disbelieves in God, Ibn Abbas 352.

• Hide it, Suraqa 310.

• My covenant, Amer bin Abdullah 53.

• They are your brothers, so help them 60.

• Stand up if you see a funeral, Jaber 281.

• I remind you of Allah who rescued you of Pharaoh 236.

• Go, you are free 320.

• Anyone who has these four traits is a hypocrite, Ibn Amr 113.

• Send him Omar, Aden Amir 323.

• Feed your slaves, Yazeed bin Jariya 59.

• Did you drink enough, Abu Basra 295.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, and Abu Bakr rented a guide from Bani ad-Daiel, Aisha 199.

• Treat prisoners kindly, Abu Aziz 364.

• Convert to Islam; He said it to the Jew, Anas 229.

• Convert to Islam and you shall be safe, Anas 42.

• Convert to Islam and you shall be safe, He said it to Abu Khafa 41.

• The prisnors’ food, 134.

• Give him his right, Ibn Abi Haddrd 330.

• The Messenger of Allah gave Khaybar Jews a piece of land; so that they would plant it, Ibn Omar, 196.

• Pardon him seventy times every day, Ibn Umar, 57.

• I call you to preform prayer and pay alms, 68.

• Invade in the name of Allah, Buraidah 340.

• May Allah increase your wealth and children, Ibrahim, Hadith Mursal 232.

• By Allah I was given the book, al-Mikdam 85.

• No one is allowed to take treaty-makers’ money, Khaled 88.

• Who oppresses a treaty-maker, 84.

• Whoever kills a Mu’ahid that has a covenant from Allah, Abu Huraira 64.

• Have you got any evidence, Ibn Ashath 149.

• Isn’t it a soul?, Sahl ibn Hanif 282.

• The fruit of the wall of so and so, 204.

• By Allah, I would tell you about it, Hudhayfah 251.

• By Allah, only if Apostles did not kill, Naim, 107.

• We were ordered to greet the people of the book with, and upon you too, Anas 176.

• Accept their kindness and forgive their misdeeds, age 61.

• Asaad bin Zaraarah headed with Mus’ab bin Amir to the house of Bani Abdul Ashhal, 34.

• My name is Mohammed, who my family called me by, Thawbaan 242.

• Akidr Doma gave to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a gift, Anas 258.

• Al Abi are not my friends, Amr ibn al-Aas 269.

• Praise be to Allah, we praise Him and seek His help, Ibn Abbas 322.

• Amulets and love charms, Ibn Mas’ood 224.

• Allah sent me as a mercy to all people, al-Maosoor 43.

• Allah made peace a salute to our nation, Abu Umaamah 159.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, did not belong to the branches of Quraish, Ibn Abbas 268.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, Wada al- Amrien, 72.

• The Prophet bought food from a Jew, Aisha 203.

• Waleed bin al-Mugeera came to the Messenger of Allah, and the Prophet recited the Quran to him, Ibn Abbas, 23.

• Some Jews came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, while he was sitting, Abu Huraira 245.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, saw the corpse of a woman who had been slain in one of the raids, 349.

• Khalid ibn al-Walid in Gmam, al-Maosoor 100.

• A man of the disbelievers wrote a letter to the Messenger of Allah, 172.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent them to Ibn Abi Hakeek, 350.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, stoned a Jewish man and a woman, Ibn Omar 147.

• The Messenger of Allah, wrote to Caesar, Ibn Abbas, 10.

• The Messenger of Allah sent Haatib ibn Abi Balta’ah to Muqawqis, Abdullah bin Abdul Kare’e, 30.

• The Messenger of Allah wrote to Najran before Surah an-Namel was revealed, 40.

• Rakana wrestled the Prophet peace be upon him, and the Prophet won, 33.

• The disbelievers of Quraish came to Madina to pay the prisoners’ ransom, 297.

• The king of Yemen sent a gift to the Prophet, peace be upon him, Anas 262.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Chosroes and Caesar, Anas 12.

• He took my sowrd, Jaber 321.

• This man wants to betray me, 325.

• It is better for them if they converted to Islam, Etaab 48.

• Eat in other utensils if you find other utensils, Abu Thalaba 227.

• The Hawazin delegation conveted to Islam and came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, 315.

• A Jew came to the Prophet and said, ” “You are setting up rivals (to Allah)”, Kateela 250.

• A Jew invited the Messenger of Allah to barley bread, Anas 299.

• A Jewish woman gave Prophet, peace be upon him, a poisoned sheep, Anas 312.

• I’m the first one who had fulfilled the covenant, Ibn Albilmana 74.

• We will be approaching some Jews, so do not greet them first, Abu Basra 175.

• We need this more than you Omar, Abdullah bin Salam 198.

• Are you Wahshi?, 109.

• Get down Abu Wahab, az-Zuhari 185.

• Go back, we will fulfill our covenant and ask Allah for help, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman 99.

• They went to the Jews, Abu Huraira .14

• Embark in the name of Allah, and in Allah’s religion, Anas 355.

• You are a man suffering from heart sickness, Saad 223.

• You cannot do this today, Qais bin Numan 254.

• You would soon conquer Egypt and that is a land which is known (as the land of al-qirat), Abu Dhar 52.

• “Silk (clothes) is worn only by him who has no share in the Hereafter.” Ibn Omar 255.

• After me there will be rulers, Asim 118.

• The Messenger of Allah, used to give them a place to sit in,184.

• They are tormented in their graves with a torment that the animals hear, Aisha 259.

• I do not break oaths, Abu Rafie 110.

• I swear by Allah, I do not trust Jews in respect of writing for me, Zaid ibn Thabit 221.

• I have not been sent as the invoker of curse, but” I have been sent as mercy. Abu Huraira 1.

• The Coptic Muqawqis sent a present to the Prophet of Allah, Buraidah 263.

• Muqawqis owner of Alexandria sent a present to the Messenger of Allah, Aisha 265.

• Fulfill the covenants of treaty-makers, Ibn Amr 98.

• The sons of disbelivers, Aswad bin Saree 353.

• Whoever gives a man his oath of protection and then kills him, Amr ibn Hamak 354.

• It is wining money, Anas 142.

• In the name of Allah the Merciful, to the Alokie of Hadramout, Masrook bin Wael 24.

• In the name of Allah the Merciful, from Muhammad bin Abdullah and His Messenger to Hercules, Ibn Abbas, 11.

• In the name of Allah, do not reach extremes, Gareer 351.

• The Messenger of Allah sent a troop of ten soldiers, Abu Huraira 324.

• “Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?”, Abdul Rahman bin Abu Bakr, 82.

• Be kind to people, Abdul-Rahman bin Aez 18.

• You will make a secure peace with the Byzantines, then you and they will fight an enemy behind you, and you will be victorious, take booty, and be safe.

• Three will receive their reward twice, Abu Musa 22.

• A rabbi came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Muhammad, we find”, Ibn Massoud 248.

• Measure for him fully, Jaber 213.

• Sweat flooding of thier skin, Zaid ibn Arqam 239.

• Relate traditions from the children of Isra’il; there is no harm, Abu Huraira 291.

• Abu Bakar went out in a trade journey to Bosra, Umm Salamah 209.

• A man from Bani Saham went out with Tamim Dari, Ibn Abbas 151.

• I went one day from the house of the Messenger of Allah, Ali .201

• Let me call them to Islam like the Messenger of Allah did, Salman 343.

• The compensation money for the treaty-maker is half the ransom money of a free man, I’m Amr 76.

• There will be people who will have (sign) a covenant with you, so whoever kills man of them, 69.

• I witnessed the Taibeen alliance with my cousins, Abdul Rahman bin Auf 96.

• The Messenger of Allah mad peace with the people of Najran, Ibn Abbas 122.

• Prayer, Pray fear Allah in (your slaves), Ali 301.

• Prayer, Pray fear Allah in (your slaves), Ali 54.

• I knew that if I started (to do that) with my people, then I will see from them, Ali 16.

• “So eat of that [meat] upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you are believers in His verses.” “And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned”, Ibn Abbas 188.

• I answered your request, Anas and Ibn Abbas 243-244.

• Say and upon you too, Anas 180.

• I signed a treaty with Umaya Bin Khalaf, in which he promised to protect me, Ibn Auf 214

• The Prophet and the people of the book, Ibn Abbas 274.

• A man stole iron armor at the time of the Prophet, 339.

• The Messenger of Allah gave treaty-makers of charity, Jabir bin Zaid 146.

• Some of the Badr prisoners were not able to pay their ransom, Ibn Abbas 220.

• The prophet, peace be upon him, used to talk about the children of Israel, Ibn Amr 292.

• He ordered us to give charity to Muslims, Ibn Abbas 132.
I had my share of the spoils, Ali 205.

• They hated to submit to their clan, Ibn Abbas 131.

• Huge, Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah 111.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ruled that every clan should take part in paying the blood money, Jaber 129.

• The Messenger of Allah wrote made a treaty between immigrants and supporters and included the Jews in it, 130.

• He wrote to the people of Geraba and Odhirh, and said, “In the name of Allah the Merciful”, 120.
He wrote, “He knows that I’m the most pious”, Aisha 318.
You lied, what came between you and Islam(prevented you from converting) three things, 187.

• Eat in the name of Allah, Sahl bin Sa’d 207.
We did not kill the non-Muslim traders at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Jaber 81.

• We used to share the spoils at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Abdul Rahman bin Abzi, 206

• I am a Persian from the people Isfahaan, Salman 267.

• I was once in the land which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah, Umm Salamah 226.

• He who lacks sincerity has no faith, Anas 124.

• No, I will wait, Ibn Abbas 2.

• Allah does not open the doors of repentance and compassion to them, Ibn Abbas 3.

• No, it is a loan with a guarantee of their return, Safwan bin Umaya 212.

• Do not fight them until you call to Islam, Anas 344.

• There is no alliance in Islam, Jubair bin Mute’m 97.

• There is no transitive disease, no huma, no star promising rain, no Safar, Abu Umaamah 71.

• Be dutiful to your father, Abu Huraira 313.

• No disbeliever will enter our mosque after this year, Jaber 117.

• I will give the flag tomorrow to a man, Sahl bin Sa’d 20.

• You might fight some people and win, 87.

• Your tribe has troubled me a lot, Aisha 4.

• I intended to prohibit ghila, Jaddama 222.

• Everyone who breaks a covenant will have a flag by his buttocks on the Day of Resurrection, Anas and Abu Saeed 115 – 116.

• “Why did you hit his face?” Abu Huraira 95.

• When the Prophet, peace be upon him, wanted to write a letter to the Romans, Anas 13.

• Ihna bin Rabh came to the Messenger of Allah, when he was in Tabuk, 119.

• Juhaina came to the Messenger of Allah, when he was in Madina, Saad bin Abi Waqas 104.

• The brrought Al-Abbas on the day of Badr, Jaber 296.

• When the verse, “The Byzantines have been defeated” was revelead, Nayyar bin Makram 275.

• When the verse “So if they come to you, [O Muhammad], judge between them or turn away from them” was revealed, Ibn Abbas 150.

• He said to Muder, “You are bold”, Ibn Mas’ood 5.

• (Look after your slaves), Abu Umaamah 58.

• “O Allah guide Thageef”, Jaber 19.

• Allah (raise) Islam with these two men, Ibn Omar 17.

• O Allah bring their hearts (make them convert to Islam), Anas 18.
• “O Allah! Give guidance to the Daus (tribe) and bring them (to Islam)!”
, Abu Huraira 9.

• “O Allah, beautify him”, Qatada, elevated Hadith 234.

• “If only you went to Abyssinia”, 125.

• “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these people”, Jubair bin Mute’m 157.

• “I would have hit your neck were you not a messenger”, 108.

• “What do you find in the Torah regarding stoning”, Ibn Omar of 156.

• “Whatever the people of the Book tell you, do not verify them, nor falsify them”, Abu Namla 247.

• “Gabriel kept on recommending that I treat my neighbours well”, Ibn Amr 225.

• What would you do, Ibn Abbas,273.

• “What have you got O Thumaamah”, Abu Huraira 6.

• “What did misk Haeeh who came from Nadeer do?”, 329.

• The Prophet, peace be upon, never fought any people before calling people to Islam, Ibn Abbas 345.

• Allah is not merciful to (those who don’t protect their weaklings)”, 333.

• “What was she to be fought”, Rabah Ben spring 356.

• “O Um Ma’bad what is this sheep”, Abu Ma’bad 253.

• “Who makes a man convert to Islam”, Amer, 27.

• “He who took an oath in order to entitle himself (to the possession) of a property, whereas he is a liar”, Abdullah 335.

• Who heard of a Jew or a Christian who entered hell, Abu Musa 93.

• Who unjustly beats his slave, Ammar 91.

• Who tortures people in this world will be tortured in the hereafter, Hisham bin Hakim 92.

• “Whoever killed a Mu’ahid (a treaty-maker) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise”, Ibn Omar 66 – 67.

• “Whoever kills a Mu’ahad with no justification”, Abu Bakra 63.

• “Whoever killed a Mu’ahid (a treaty-maker) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise”, Ibn Omar 62.

• “If somebody slanders his slave and the slave is innocent from what he says”, Abu Huraira 89.

• “Whoever has a treaty between himself and a people, then let him not violate the treaty”, Amr ibn Absa 103.

• “Feed those of your slaves who please you from what you eat”, Abu Dhar 56.

• Whoever from the Arabs calls to prayer, Khaled Ben Said 347.

• “From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Bakr bin Wael, converted to Islam”, Anas 21.

• “I am his opponent (the one who breaks his oath)”, Jundub 70.

• “People are like gold and silver”, Abu Huraira 35.

• “Yes, Today is a day of fulfillment and sincerity”, Suraka 105.

• “Yes, (keep ties) with your mother, Asma 256.

• “Yes, the torment of the grave is true”, Aisha 241.

• The Messenger of Allah forbade his armies from mutilation, Makhool 363.

• The Messenger of Allah forbade mutilation, Khalid bin Ma’daan 362.

• “This is a letter from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him to Negus”, 29.

• “Did you call them to Islam”, Abu ibn Ka’b 346.

• “Do you have (remember) the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi Salt”, Shareed 290.

• “Why don’t you (side with) the one who has the right”, Abu Said 334.

• “Do you admire the softness of this (cloth)? The handkerchiefs of Sa’d b. Mu’adh in Paradise are better than this.” Anas 257.

• “Allah is only merciful (to merciful people)”, Anas 8.

• “Had he sold me or loaned me (something) I would have paid it (his loan)”, Abu Rafie 202.

• They gave Najran their oath of protection, 44.

• “How did you know it was Ruqyah?”, Abu Said 293.

• “And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.”, Ibn Massoud 238.

• “O Abu Harith convert to Islam”, Anas 39.

• “O Abu Dhar, you are a person who still has (the remnants) of Ignorance in him “,55.

• “O Abu Hurayrah call the Ansar”, Abu Huraira 319.

• “Ride your hourse,O son of Auf”, Arabad 83.

• “O Rkana, don’t you fear Allah”, 32.

• “O Saad, did you not hear what Abu Habbab said?” Osama bin Zaid 237.

• “O Shaybah come closer to me”, 314.

• “O Aisha! Do you know that Allah has instructed me regarding the matter I asked Him about?” 307.

• “O Aisha, Allah is kind and loves kindness” 317.

• “O Adi bin Hatim, convert to Islam and you shall be safe.” 38.

• “O uncle say there is no god but Allah”, Saeed bin Musayyib 25.

• “O So and so, do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?”, Al-Faltan 240.

• “O So and so, what prevents you from praying with us?”, Imran 298.

• “By Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (of Islam) through you”, Maaz 26.

• “O Jews, we were told that twelve men testify”, Auf bin Malik 252.

• “O Quraish buy (protect) yourselves”, Abu Huraira 15,

• “O immigrants”, Ibn Amr 106.

• “Make things easy and do not make them difficult”, Abu Musa 36.

• “May Allah guide you and grant you well-being”, Abu Musa 231.

Index of Athaar:

• “By Allah, he is described in the Torah”, Abdullah bin Amr 305.

• “You shall greet him first, if you need something from him”, Ibrahim 171.

• “If you write, the write peace be upon those who follow guidance”, Mujahid 173.

• “If you weaken his mind”, Ibn Omar 80.

• “This might suffice if he did not find Muslims”, Ibrahim 138.

• “Non-Muslim Captives”, Hassan 145.

• “Do not go kill monks”, Abu Bakr 358.

• Abu Darda visited his Jewish neighbor, 230.

• Abu Bakr and Umar made the compensation money for Jews and Christians, 75.

• His father freed a Magian boy, Kharja bin Zaid 304.

• Ibn Shash killed a Christian man from Levant, 77.

• Ibn Umar freed a Christian slave, 303.

• A Muslim bought clothes from a non-Muslim, At-Thaowri 210.

• “Your friends gave us their oath of protection”, Salman 370.

• “Some crescents are bigger than others”, Ibn Omar 367.

• The army passed by the land of a treaty-maker, 86.

• A Jewish man was killed in cold blood, 79 Anas.

• Safia gave some of her inheritance to a Jew, 289.

• Abdullah and Abu Darda and Fudala bin Obaid, used to greet non-Muslims first, 178.

• A Muslim and a Jew went to Omar bin al-Khattab for arbitration, 331.

• Omar bin Khattab called Farfesaa by his nicname, 186.

• Omar bin Abdul Aziz freed a Christian slave, 302.

• Amr bin Sharhabeel used to give al-Fitr alms to priests, 135.

• Motres is a safe place, and I give my oath of protection to whoever lives there, Ibn Omar 373.

• A Jew came to Abdul Malik bin Marwan, az-Zuhari 332.

• I cannot enter your Churches that have these photos, 169.

• He greeted Ad-Dahaqeen by waving at them, 163.

• He allowed a Jew to testify against a Christian, as-Shaibi 153.

• He told him that he saw ibn Makeaz shake hands with a Christian, 158.

• He used to ask for non-Muslims’ permission before entering their places, Abdul Rahman bin Yazeed 181.

• He said that there is nothing wrong with selling goods to treaty-makers, Hammad 217.

• He used to allow the people of the book to testify against each other, Shurayh 152.

• He used to give al-Fitr alms to priests, Abu Maysara 141.

• He asked tax collectors to not force treaty-makers to pay the Islamic tax, Ibn Omar 378.

• Muslims are allowed to become the business partners of Jews or Christians, Hassan 215.

• He greeted a man passed by and he replied, Okba Ben Amer 166.

• I ask you to not kill a child, or a woman, Abu bakar 360.

• I call the Caliph after me, to look after the immigrants, Omar 50.

• I advise you to look after treaty-makers, Omar 49.

• Your relatives of the people of the book, Qatada .284

• He sent another man and I to Hercules, Hisham ibn al-Aas 246.

• You must fulfill you convent to both the righteous and the immoral, Meimoon bin Mehran 368.

• I attended the Council of Musa ibn Ishaq in the mosque, Yahya bin Mohammed 337.

• The compensation money for treaty-makers, in his reign was about one thousand dinars, Ibn al 78.

• Greet back Jews and Christians, Ibn Abbas 164.

• Ibn Shihab was asked about killing treaty-makers who use black magic, 309.

• People asked Shaibi about feeding Jews or Christians in oath expiation, 137.

• Hassan was asked about the verdict of visiting the people of the Book, Abu alarm 183.

• I asked Nafe’ about the testimony of the People of the Book, 155.

• A Jew asked me about the period Moses spent, Said bin Jubair 235.

• I heard Ibn Greg and Thaowri say that a Muslim is allowed to console a non-Muslim, 276.

• Thaowri and Imran said that Muslims are not allowed to shake hands with a Jew, 160.

• I heard Suleiman ibn Musa say that they used to walk in our funerals, Ibn Greg 279.

• Intercession is for the old, the young, the Bedouin, the Jewish and the Christian, Thaowri 219.

• Shuraih Allowe a non-Muslim to testify, 154.

• I read the letter that Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent to Adi bin Ertah while we were in Basra, 375.

• “You must protect a Muslim slave just like you protect free Muslims”, Ibn Omar 374.

• “He promised them to not destroy their churches”, Khalid 47.

• “Do not betray them even if they initiated a fight”, Ibn Omar342.

• “They might have threatened you”, Ali 73.

• “Ata told me, ‘A Muslim my walk in a non-Muslims’ funeral'”, Ibn Greg 278.

• Jews said to Omar, “If this verse was revealed to us”, 249.

• “I said to Zuhri, ‘Should we greet him?'”, Muammar 179.

• Abu Musa wrote to Dehqan and greeted him, 162.

• He greeted a non-Muslim in a letter, 170.

• Khalid ibn al-Walid wrote to the people of Persia to invite them to Islam, Abu Wael 348.

• Amel wrote a letter to Omar and said that he met the Samaria people, Gatif 191.

• Omar bin Abdul Aziz said that a Jew may intercede, 218.

• I asked Omar bin Abdul Aziz about this verse, “Fight in the cause of Allah”, Yahya bin Yahya 361.

• I wrote a letter to Omar bin al-Khattab, when he made an alliance with the Christians of Syria, Abdul Rahman bin Ghanam 102.

• We were with Omar bin Khattab, when a beaten Copt came, Sweden bin Gafla 123.

• We used to pay al-Fitr alms for every person we provided for, of Abu Huraira 139.

• I was with Shakeek bin Salamah, when some captives passed by, Abu sedate 143.

• A Muslim may pray in the apparel of a Christian or a Magian, Thaowri 211.

• You may say to a Jews or a Christians, “May Allah guide you”, Ibrahim 233.

• A Muslim may bequeath a Jew or a Christian, as-Shabi 283.

• A Muslim may eat the slaughters of the people of the book, Abraham 190.

• A Muslim may be the business partner of a Jew or a Christian, Eyaas 216.

• There is nothing wrong with eating the cheese of the people of the book of cheese, Hassan and Ibn Sirin and 194.

• A Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim, Atta 286.

• Do not eat the cheese, except what has been made, Ibn Mas’ood 192.

• Do not betray nor reach extremes, Abu Baker341.

• A Muslim may bequeath only one-third of his bequest to a Jew or a Christian, Hassan 287.

• Do not enter non-Muslims’ places without permission, Saeed bin Jubair 182.

• A Muslim may not give Jews or Christians of the Zakat, Ibrahim Nakha’i 136.

• Muslims are not allowed to kill women and children in battle, Mujahid 359.

• My parents converted to Islam before I was born, Aisha 127.

• Muslim armies never attacked monks, Bakr bin Sawada 357.

• When we conquered Madaien, people came out to fight the enemy, 193.

• When Muslims came, they ate some of the foods of the Magi, Ibrahim Abu Wael 195.

• When we went to Abyssinia, Umm Salamah 126.

• A man who verbally abused a Jew or a Christian, Ikrima 90.

• “I would even greet Pharaoh back, had he greeted me”, Ibn Abbas 167.

• If a Jew or a Christian died while he was with me, Muammar 277.

• Muslims may greet them first, Omar bin Abdul Aziz 177.

• We only have and recite the book of God, 65.

• The Jews and the Christians walked in the funeral of Sulaiman Bin Dawood, Abdul Razzaq 280.

• Muslims should give them their rights, az-Zuhari 148.

• Are they covenants and conventions, Arafa Bin Harith 376.

• Who converts to a religion becomes one of its followers, az-Zuhari 189.

• Of the people of Mecca, Said bin Jubair and Atta 144.

• “Where did you bring this water from?”, Omar 37.

• “Greet back whoever greets you”, Ibn Abbas 174.

• We have to protect the rights of treaty-makers, 377.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, is described in the Torah as neither rude nor relentless, 306.

• Four verses from the Book of Allah were revealed regarding me, Saad 272.

• “Yes, they are my company, and I must give them their right”, Ibn Massoud 168.

• This is Abu Obeida’s letter to the people of der Tiyaaa, 371.

• This is what Abdullah Bin Omar; the prince of the faithful gave to the people of Ailia, 46.

• Had one of you only pointed his finger to the sky, Omar 365.

• Ibn Abbas look for my killer, Omar 51.

• “O Jew this is my armor”, Ali 336.

• A Muslim should pay al-fitr alms for his assitant, Ibn Abbas 140.

• He must fulfill the Covenant, bid 372.
Index:

Introduction……. 3

Research Methodology ….4

Part I:

Introduction…. 8

Islam urged Muslims to be tolerant with non-Muslims…. 11

Islam is the religion of guidance…. 14

Tolerance of belief and worship….33

Treaty-makers’ Commandments…. 34

The sanctity of the blood of the people of the Book and treaty-makers….37

The sanctity of their property and honor…..41

The prohibition of oppressing them…. 44

The fulfillment of covenants and charters…. 45

Muslims are allowed to give the alms to treaty-makers if they are poor…. 63

Arbitrating between the people of the Book…. 66

Accepting non-Muslims’ testimony…. 67

Accept their intercession in some cases…. 68

The verdict of greeting a non-Muslims and shaking their hands…. 69

Asking non-Muslims for permission before entering their places…. 73

Honoring them…. 73

The permissibility of the slaughter meat of the people of the book…. 74

Buying, selling and trading, and other transactions…. 75

Learning their science and language ….84

Seeking non-Muslims’ treatment….85

The right of non-Muslim neighbors…. 85

Visiting non-Muslim patients…. 86

Praying for them to be guided….87

Mingling with non-Muslims….87

Accepting their gifts….97

Non- Muslims’ Kinship….104

The approval of the People of the Book…. 106

Consoling a non-Muslim and burying him…. 107

Inheritance and wills….108

Marriage of the People of the Book…. 109

Narrating their stories 109

Charity to non-Muslims 110

Accepting non-Muslims’ invitation 112

Freeing non-Muslims 112

Pardoning them 113

Justice with non-Muslims 124

Manifestations of tolerance in Jihad 128

Manifestations of tolerance in the Islamic tax 135

Part II:

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate Islam’s tolerance 137

Conclusion 173

References 175

Index of Elevated Hadiths 179

Index of Athaar 189

General Index 194

________

Notes:
• Saad bin Ibrahim Al Tamimi, a poet and a scholar known as the “Hees Bees”, he is known for his knowledge of Arabs and poetry, see his biography in “Dictionary of Writers”, (11/199), Heritage Revival house.

• “West’s Tolerance with Muslims,” a critical study (p. 76).

• “West’s Tolerance with Muslims,” a critical study (p. 53).

• “Who will Protect Christian Arabs” (p. 26).

• Bukhari in his “Saheeh” (3700), Book of “Companions’ Virtues”, Chapter of Allegiance.

• Bukhari (7288), The Book of “Holds Firmly”, Chapter of following the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and Muslim (1337), the book of pilgrimage, pilgrimage once in a lifetime.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (6/116) from the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah, Hadith Hasan.

• “Resorting to non-Muslims’ Help” (1/18), quote.

• The writer Shihab al-Din Mahmud bin Abdullah al-Husseini al-Alusi Baghdadi, who is known for his famous writings, and died in Baghdad in 1270 AH, see his biography in “flags”, by Zrcelli (7/176), House of science.

• “Spirit of Meanings” (9/76).

• Abu Dawood (4941) in “Sunan”, the book of literature, the chapter of mercy, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1924), the book of righteousness, chapter of Muslims’ mercy of, and said, “This is a Hasan Saheeh Hadith”, and Ahmad in his “Musnad”(2/160).

• Hafiz Ahmed bin Ali bin Hajar Abolfazl Askalani, owner of the famous classifications of Hadith, and the book of “Fath al-Bari, the explanation of Sahih Bukhari,” (year 852), see his biography in “Gold Fragmants” (7/270), march house.

• Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Khalaf bin Abdul Malik bin Battaal Bakri Qurtubi, known as Ibn al-Lejam, and known for his explanation of Sahih Bukhari (died in 449), see his biography in “Figures’ Biography” (18/47)

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/440).

• Bukhari in “Saheeh” (6013), Book of Ethics, the chapter of being merciful to people and animals, and Muslim in his “Sahih” (2319), the book of peace, chapter of “Showing mercy to children and others.”

• Sahih Bukhari (5304), Book of Divorce, chapter of “al-La’an”.

• “Sahih Muslim” (2983), Book of asceticism, chapter of “Being kind to poor widows and orphans”.

• Sahih Bukhari (2466), BookofOppressions, chapter of “Wells in the Road that do no harm anyone”, and “Sahih Muslim” (2244), thebookofpeace, chapter of “Wateringand feedingcattle.”

• “Sahih Muslim” (2245), Book of peace, chapter of “Wateringand feedingcattle.”

• Al-Homra, is a bird.

• Abu Dawood (2675), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Impermissibility of Burning the Enemy with Fire”

• Bukhari (2365), Book of Watering, the merit of watering, “Sahih Muslim” (2242), Book of peace, chapter of harming cats or other animles that do not harm people. And see the book “Islam is a religion of guidance and mercy” (p. 9).

• “Sahih Muslim” (2599), Book of righteousness, chapter of “The prohibition of cursing animals.”

• An-Nasai’e “Major” (6/380), Book of Interpretation, chapter of the verse, “And nothing has prevented us from sending signs except that the former peoples denied them. And we gave Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign, but they wronged her. And we send not the signs except as a warning.” And Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (2/272), chapter of “Their questions to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him in Makkah”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (3231), Book of the Beginning of Creation, chapter of “When someone says Amen”, and Muslim (1795), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The oppression the Prophet, peace be upon him, suffered non-Muslims, Thaqeef, the hypocrates, and Ibn Abdul Ialil from the people of Taif “.”Fath al-Baari” (6/315).

• Bukhari (4821), Book of Interpretation, chapter of the verse, “Covering the people; this is a painful torment”, and Muslim (2798), Bookof the description of the day ofresurrectionandheavenandhell.

• Bukhari (262), Book of ablution after converting to Islam and binding the prisoner in the mosque, “Sahih Muslim” (1764), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Binding prisoners and giving them food”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (8/88). Ibn Hajar said, that Ibn Ishaq narrate, “I have forgiven you Thumaamah.”

• Abu Ali in “Musnad” (7/250). Haythami Said, “Narrated by Abu Ali and his men are trusted but Ibn Ishaaq isn’t”. “Majma az-Zawaed” (8/341), and is backed by Hadith Abu Musa in “Athafe Al-khira” (7/324), and is attributed to Ibn Abu Omar and Nasa’i in “Major”. I said, “Al-Albaani narrated it from al-Hasan Ibn al-Mubarak in “Asceticism” (1/203), and thus the Hadith is Hasan. See: “The Series of Correct Hadiths” (167).

• Bukhari (2937), Book of Jihad and praying for non-Muslims’ guidance, and “Sahih Muslim” (2524), Book of peace, chapter of “The Merits of Ghaffar, Juhayna, Aslam, Ashja’, Mazeen, Daows, Tae’ and Tamim.”

• “Omdat Al-Qare'” (14/208).

• Mohammed Ben Youssef Ben Ali Kirmani, famous for his commentary on Sahih Bukhari, died in “786”. See: his biography in “Underlying Gems” (4/310), Generation House.

• Bukhari (2941), Book of Jihad, Chapter of “The prayer of the Prophet, peace be upon him”.

• Bukhari (7) Book of revelation, and Muslim (1773), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’ letter, peace be upon him, to Hercules, calling him to Islam.

• Imam Hafiz Mohiuddin Yahya bin Sharaf Bin Marie Shafei, owner of the famous classifications, most notably, “Commentary on Saheeh Muslim” and “Total Explanation”. See his biography in the “Tazkerat al-Huffaz” (4/174).

• “Nawawi’s explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/107).

• Muslim (1774), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’ letter, peace be upon him, to kings, calling him to Islam.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/113).

• Bukhari (2938), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Calling Jews and Christians to Islam” and “The Prophet ‘s letter, peace be upon him to Khosrau and Caesar” and “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”, and Muslim (2092), Book of Adornment, chapter of “The Prophet used a seal when writing letters to Persians”

• .Bukhari (6944) Book of coercion, chapter of “Selling and rights”, and Muslim (1765), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The evacuation of Jews from Hijaz.”

• Bukhari (2753), Book of Commandments, chapter of “Are women and children regarded as relatives”, and Muslim (204), a book of faith, chapter of “The verse, ‘ And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest kindred'”.

• “Signs of Prophecy”, Bayhaqi (2/179).

• Tirmidhi (3681), “Doors of Virtue”, chapter of “The virtues of Omar bin Khattab”, and Abu Issa said, “This is a hasan saheeh Ghraib Hadith from Ibn Umar.

• Narrated by Tayaalisi in “The Beginning and the End” (6 | 168), through Imran Qattan, form Qatada, from Anas Ibn Malik, from Zayd ibn Thabit, and this is a Hassan Hadith; For Imran Qattan is a trusted narrateor, as Ibn Hajar said in “Takreeb at-Tahzeeb.”

• Tirmidhi (3942), “Doors of Virtue”, chapter of “The Merits of Thaqif and Bani Hanifa”, He said, “This Hadith is a Hassan true Ghraib Hadith”. I said, “It is via Abu Zubayr from Jabir and Abu Zubair is not trusted, but Abdul Rahman bin Sabit, narrated it in Ahmad’s Musnad (3/343), thus it is a correct Hadith”.

• Bukhari (3009), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The reward of whoever makes a man convert to Islam”, and “Muslim” (2406), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Ali bin Abi Talib”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (7/478).

• Abu Ali in “Musnad” (5/325), and Tabarani in “The Small” (307). Haythami Said it is found in “Majma az-Zwae’d” (5/353).

• Narrated by Bazzaar and Abu Ali and Tabarani in “The Small”, and the first two men are known for their accurate narrations. And narrated by Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh / charity” (14/500). See: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/339).

• Bukhari (97), Book of science, chapter of “A man teaching his nation and his family”, and Muslim (154), Book of faith, chapter of “The necessity of the Belief in the message of our Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.”

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/199), and is correct.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/61), and “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/199), and is a Mursal Hadith as Ibn Katheer stated.

• Tabarani in his book “The Enormous” (20/336). Haythami said, “Attabarani narrated this Hadith in his book “The Enormous”, “Majma az-Zwa’ed” (3/220).

• Narrated in “Sahih Bukhari” (1360), Book of Funerals, chapter of “When a non-Muslim coverts to Islam in his death bed”, and Muslims (24), Book of faith, chapter of “The accepted Islam of the non-Muslim who coverts to Islam in his death bed (54) Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and his men are trustworthy, however Mu’az died before Doad bin Nafi was born, “Majma az-Zwa’ed ” (5/602).

• Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani in three places, and Mohammed bin Maaouya Alnisabure is a trusted narrator. However, Ahmed regarded it a weak Hadith, yet the rest of the narrators are trustworthy, “Majma az-Zwa’ed” (5/602).

• “High Demands”, by Ibn Hajar (2/166). And Busayri mentioned it in his book “Athafe al-Khira” (6/332), and is a Mursal Hadith.

• Narrated by Bayhaqi in “Signs”(4/395), a Mursal Hadith.

• Signs ofprophecy”Bayhaqi (4/395), and “The Beginning and the End”, (4/272), I said, “Abd al-Rahman bin Zaid bin Aslam narrated weak Hadith, see his biography in “Tahzeeb at-Tahzeeb” (6/161) and Ahmad and others said that it is weak, but Abdul Rahman bin Abdul qare’ said that it is Mursal Hadith.

• Ibn Katheer said in “The Beginning and the End” (3/103), that Ibn Ishaq narrated this story.

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (4078), book of clothes and turbans, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1784), book of clothes and turbans. Abu Issa said, “This is a Hasan weird Hadith, for we do not know Abu Hassan Asqallaani or Rkana.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/153)

• Bukhari (3383), book of Prophets’ Hadiths, chapter of “The verse, ‘ Certainly were there in Joseph and his brothers signs for those who ask'”, and Muslim (2378), Book of virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Joseph peace be upon him”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (15/135).

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/529).

• Bukhari (4341), book of Conquests, chapter of “Sending Abu Musa”, and Muslim (1733) Book of Jihad, chapter of “Making it easier and not Difficult for Muslims”.

• Daaraqutni in”Sunan” (1/32), and Bayhaqi in”Sunan” (1/32), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (4/3787), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “Classification” (7/342), and the origin of the Bukhari Hadith (3595), The Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The signs of prophecy in Islam”.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “Classification” (7/427), a Mursal Hadith from Qatada, and Ibn Muqre’ mentioned it in “The lexicon” (304), thus it is a correct Hadith.

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55), and “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (5/385). I said, “Abdu Yasu’, his father and his grandfather are not well-known narrators, however Ibn Hajar mentioned him in his book “Distinguishing Companions” (7/265). Ibn Hajar said, “Abu Abdu Yasu”s Hadith is mentioned in Bayhaqi’s book “The Evidence”, and is narrated by Younis bin Bakir in Ibn Ishaq’s book “Conquests”.

• Tabarani in “The Enourmous” (24/90), and is a correct Hadith, and Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani and its men are trusted narrators”, “Majma az-Zawae’d” (5/554).

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (3/109), and Abu Ali in “Musnad” (6/471), and is a correct Hadith. Haythami Said, “This Hadith is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Ali and its men are trusted narrators”, “Majma az-Zawae’d” (5/554).

• Tabarani in “The Enormous” (20/8). Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani and Mohammed bin Ismail Ibn Ayyash, who is known for his weak narrations”, “Majma Zawae’d”] (5/554). I said, “Mohammed bin Ishaq is known for his weak narrations.”

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55), and “Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 72), from Ibn Isaac.

• “Biography” Ibn Kathir (4/100), and “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/629).

• Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub Zorai Demashqi Shamsuddin, known as Ibn al-Qayyim, and is Taymya’s pupil, Ibn Hajar said about him, “He was knowledgeable, and knew a lot about the different disagreements and doctrines”. He died in “751”. See his biography “Underlying Gems” (3/400), Generation House.

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “History of Nations and Kings” (3/609), and “Provisions of treaty-makers” (454).

• “Abscess” Abu Yusuf (p. 146) from a Mursal Hadith from Ibn Ishaq.

• “Athafe Al-khira” (1/184), narrated from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah. Yet, Ibn Hajar mentioned in his book “The Tongue”, that this Hadith is weak (4/20), Abdul Samad Jaber.

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (3162) Book of Islamic tax and the commandments of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, regarding treaty-makers.

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (1392) Book of funerals, chapter of “The graves of the Prophet, peace be upon him, Abu Bakr, and Umar.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/267).

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (3700), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of “Allegiance”.

• “Saheeh Muslim” (2543), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of ” The commandments of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, regarding the people of Egypt”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Saheeh Muslim” (16/97).

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/231) and Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” 10/332, and in the “Isnaad”.

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (5156), book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ rights”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (1/78).

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (30), Book of Faith, chapter of “Sins of the period of ignorance”. And Muslim (1661) Book of Faith, chapter of “Feeding slaves of your own food”.

• Narrated by Abu Dawood in “Sunan” (5161), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (1/168).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (5164), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1949), Book of righteousness, chapter of “Pardoning servants”.

• “High Demands” (3/26), narrated from Abu Ya’la.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (4/35). Haythami Said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani, however Asim bin Obeid-Allah, is known for his weak narrations.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Abu Ali and his narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar and Assem bin Obeid-Allah, who is known for his weak narrations.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Bukhari (3166), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”.

• Nasa’i (8/24), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”.

• Nasa’i (8/25), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/36).

• Tirmidhi (1403), chapter of “Who Kills a Treaty-maker”. Abu Issa said, “This Hadith is narrated by Abu Huraira, and is a Hassan correct Hadith”.

• Bukhari (3172), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “Muslims’ rights, and their neighbors’ rights”, and Muslim (1370), Book of Hajj, chapter of “The Merit of Madina and the prayers of the Prophet, peace be upon him, of blessing.”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/86), and “Nawawi’s Explanation of Saheeh Muslim” (9/144).

• Nasa’i in “Sunan” (8/25), and is a correct Hadith.

• Nasa’i in “Sunan” (8/25), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”, and is a correct Hadith.

• “Degrees of Faith” by Bayhaqi (4/342), and is narrated by Fadhil bin Suleiman, who is known for his inaccurate narrations. And Ayez bin Rabia, see his biography in “Amendment” by Ibn Abi Hatim.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (4/61). Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and his narrators are trustworthy”, “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Enormous” and “The Middle” and his narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and the Sadakha bin Abdullah Samin, however Ahmad and others regard this Hadith weak.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1404), chapter of “Who Kills a Treaty-maker”. Abu Issa said, “This is a strange Hadith, for Ibn Hajar said in “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”, that Sa’ead Ibn Al-Murzeban is known for his weak narrations.”

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/344), and Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/147), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/34). And Abu Hatem regarded it a weak Hadith.

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/134) through Ibn Umar, Daaraqutni said, “Narrated by Ibrahim bin Abi Yahya and Rabia Ibn Albilmana, who are known for their weak narrations”, Ibn Hajar said in “Attaining Objectives” (353), “Narrated by Abdul Razzaq, and Daaraqutni attributed it to Ibn Umar.”

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/129), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/102).

• Dawood (4583), book of compensation Money, chapter of “Treaty-makers’ compensation Money”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1413) Book of compensation Money, Chapter of “Non-Muslims’ compensation Money”, and Nasa’I in “Sunan (8/45), chapter of “The amount of Non-Muslims’ compensation Money”. Abu Issa said, “This is a hasan Hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Amr.

• “Musnad as-Shafei” (1/344), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/33). I said, “Sufyan ibn Hussein is a trusted narrator, as stated by Ibn Hajar in “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”.

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/149), and is narrated by Rabah bin Obaidullah, who is known for his weak narrations as Ahmed and Daaraqutni said. See his biography in “The Tongue” (2/548).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/32) through the narration of Yahya bin Saeed, however Ibn al-Madani and Anas said that Yahya was not born in the reign of Omar bin al-Khattab, see: “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”, (11/196) .

• “High Demands” (2/149), through the narration of Ibn Abi Shaybah, whom Ibn Hajar remained silent about. See: “The classification” of Ibn Abi Shaybah (6/484).

• Bukhari (2618), Book of Gifts, chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2056), a book of Beverages, chapter of “Honoring guests with food”.

• Abu Dawood (3050), Book of Tax and leadership, the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims if they disagree in transactions”, and is a weak Hadith as Nasa’i and Daaraqutni stated, for it is narrated by Asha’th bin Swar, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Dawood (3052), Book of Tax and leadership, the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims if they disagree in transactions”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Dawood (4604), Book of Sunnah, chapter of “Adhering to Sunnah”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (6/91), and is a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233).

• Abu Dawood (3806), book of Foods, chapter of “The prohibition of eating wild animals”. Narrated by Saleh bin Yahya bin Miqdaam, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (6858), Book of Limits, chapter of “Accusing slaves”, and Muslim in Saheeh (1660) Book of Faith, chapter of “The Prohibition of Accusing Slaves of Adultery.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/485), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/485), and is a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and trustworthy men”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/436).

• Muslim (2613), chapter “The stern warning to those who torture people unlawfully”.

• Ibn Hibbaan “Saheeh” (11/238), chapter of “Torment in for those who verbally abuse the people of the book”. And is a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad (3/153).

• Bukhari (3414), Book of Prophets’ Hadith, chapter of “The words of Allah, ” And indeed, Jonah was among the messengers”, and Muslim (2373), Book of virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Moses, peace be upon him”. Narrated by several companions.

• Ahmed (1/193), a correct Hadith as Ibn Hibbaan stated, and is narrated by Abu Ali. See: “Athafe al-Khira” (7/315).

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/502).

• “Athafe al-Khira” (7/315) narrated by al-Harith, and Ibn Lahee’ah, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Muslim (1787), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The fulfillment of Covenants”.

• Bukhari (2731), Book of Conditions, chapter of “Jihad conditions”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/340).

• “Provisions of Treaty-makers” (p. 454)

• Abu Dawood (2759), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Covenant between the Imam and the enemy”, and Tirmidhi (1580) “Biographies”, chapter of “Treachery”, and is a correct Hadith.

• “High Demands” (2/170), narrated by Isaac, and is regarded as a weak Hadith by Busayri, see: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/346) bin Said chapter.

• “High Demands” (2/173), narrated by al-Hamidi.

• Ibn Majah (4019), Book of sedition, chapter of “Penalties”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (2761), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Apostles”, and is a correct Hadith.

• (143) Abu Dawood (2762), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Apostles”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (4072), Book of Conquests, chapter of “The killing of Hamza Bin Abdul Muttalib”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (7/369).

• Abu Dawood (2758), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Imam’s covenants”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Hafiz Abu Suleiman Hamad bin Mohammed bin Ibrahim Busta, Known for his classifications, died in 388, see: his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (17/23).

• “Aoun al-Ma’bood” (7/311).

• Bukhari (3173) chapter of “Reconciliation with non-Muslims”, “The fulfillement of convenants”, and “The verse ‘ And if they incline to peace, then incline to it” [Anfal: 61]. And Muslim (1669), Book of Oath, warriors, retribution and compensation money, chapter of “Compensation money”

• Bukhari (3174), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “The fulfillment of Covenants”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/276).

• Bukhari (3178), Book of Islamic Tax, and Muslim (58), Book of Faith, chapter of “Hypocrits’ traits”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/280).

• “Athafe al-Khira” (6/346), narrated by Ibn Isaac, and is a weak Hadith as Busayri stated in “The book of bin Said”.

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3187), and Muslim (1736), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”.

• “Saheeh Muslim (1738), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”.

• “Nawawi’s Explaination of Sahih Muslim” (12/44).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/392), a weak Hadith narrated by Asha’th bin Siwar, Shuraik and Hasan al-Basri.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/445), a weak Hadith narrated by Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah al-Masoudi, and Ibn Haroon.

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/16).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/17).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (3041) Book of Tax and leadership, chapter of “Collecting the Islamic Tax”, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/187), and is a weak Hadith narrated by Asbat Ben Nasr and Ismail bin Abdul Rahman. See: “Attaqreeb and Attahzeeb”(1/275).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/201), a weak hadith narrated by Mujaled bin Saeed.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/135)

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/72).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/290).

• Bukhari (2297), Book of Bail, chapter of “Abu Bakr’s convenant”.

• Abu Dawood in “Sunan” (4292) Book Of Epics, chapter of “Roman’s Epics”, and Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (4089), Book of Sedition”, and Ahmed in “Musnad” (4/91).

• “Saheeh Muslim”(1507), Book of Freeing Slaves, chapter of “The prohibition of making slaves work for other than their masters”.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/225).

• Nasa’i in “The Major” (6/305) and is a correct Hadith.

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran” by Ibn Kathir (4/447), a Hasan Hadith narrated be Jaafar.

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran” (4/447).

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran”, by Ibn Kathir (4/584).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (3332), Book of sales, chapter of “Avoid suspicions”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (4/113), and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (4/112), narrated by Ibrahim ibn al-Muhaji, a trusted narrator as Ibn Hajar stated in “Attaqreeb”.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (8/511), a weak Hadith narrated by Jaber Aljafee.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (3/324)

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (3/324).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(2/401).

• Bukhari (1461), Book of Zakat, chapter of “Zakat on relatives”, and “Saheeh Muslim” (998), Book of Zakat, chapter of “Alimony and paying alms to non-Muslim relatives, husbands, children and parents.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401). Narrated by Abu Khaled al-Ahmar, and Hajjaj bin Katheer, who are known for their inaccurate narrations

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401). And is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/402). Narrated by Habib ibn Abi Habib sadooq goofing.

• Tirmidhi (1436), chapter of “The stoning of the People of the Book”.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classification” (6/62), and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2416), Book of Debates, chapter of “Debaters statements about each other”. And Muslim (138), Book of faith, chapter of “Hell torment to whoever violates Muslim’s rights”.

• Abu Dawood (3591), chapter of “Arbitrating between the people of the Book.

• Bukhari (2780), Book of Commandments, and Abu Dawood (3606), chapter of “Treaty-makers’ testimony, and travelers bequest”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/412).

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classified” (6/129), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (4/532).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (4/532)

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(4/532), narrated by Khalid bin Abdul Rahman bin Bakir, who is known for his inaccurate narrations

• Ibn Abi Shaybah “The Classification”(4/532), a Hasan Hadith narrated by Awn ibn Muammar, who is known for his inaccurate narrations, as mentioned by Ibn Hibbaan. See: “The Tounge”.

• Bukhari (3635), Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The words of Allah the Almighty, “Know it as they know their sons”, and Muslim (1699) Book of Limits, chapter of “Stoning Jewish treaty-makers for adultery”.

• Bukhari (3139), Book the Five Impositions, chapter of “When the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the captives of the spoils”.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(5/246), narrated by Abu Abdullah Asqallaani and Hassan bin Muslim Hudhali. See: “The Amendment”.

• Tabarani in “The Enormous” (8/109), and Haythami said, “Attabarani narrated it in the “Middle”, and is a weak Hadith narrated by Amr ibn Hashim Beiruti.” See: “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/63). He also said, “Attabarani narrated it from shaykh Bakr ibn, however Nasa’I regarded this is a weak Hadith. See: “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/69).

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classification”(6/117).

• Bukhari (2987), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Replying to Donkies”, and Muslim (1798), Book of Jihad and walk, chapter of “The Prophet’s prayer, peace be upon him, against the harm of the hypocrites.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/377), and is a correct Hadith.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/378), and is a correct Hadith.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/378).

• Bukhari (7), Book of the Beginning of Revelation, and Muslim (1773), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’s letter, peace be upon him, to Hercules, calling him to Islam.

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/380)

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/381), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/259), a correct Hadith.

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/427), narrated by Mohammed bin Isaac.

• “High Demands” (2/421), and “Athafe al-Khira” (7/393). Narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), A Mursal Hadith narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Abu Ya’la.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani in “The Enormous”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/83)

• .Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/83).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/249), a weak Hadith narrated by Masoudi.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/249), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a correct Hadith.

• (222) Muslim (2163), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (14/145).

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/14), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/270), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/14), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/270), a correct Hadith. And Abu Alnnbh is Omar bin Saadi, a trusted narrator as Ibn Abi Hatim said in “The Amendment” (6/135).

• “High Demands” (2/422), narrated by Ibn Abu Omar.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a Mursal Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), narrated by Ma’roof bin Abi Ma’roof al-Balkhi, an unknown narrator.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a Mursal Hadith which Ibn Muqre’ mentioned in his “Dictionary”

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (2817), Chapter of “Eating the slaughters of the people of the book”.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), narrated by Abu Jafar al-Razi, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2499), Book of Partnership, chapter of “The partnership of Muslims and treaty-makers in crops”, and Muslim (1551), chapter of “The partnership in fruit and planting”.

• Dawood (3055), Book of Tax and Leadership, chapter of ‘The Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, a correct Hadith.

• Narrated by Hakem in the “Afterthought” (3/700), and Ibn Habban in “Saheeh” (1/521) chapter of “The permissibility of transacting with non-Muslims”, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (6/24), and Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (6/280), narrated by Mohammed bin Abi Sarri, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Bukhari (2263), Book of Trade, chapter of “Employing non-Muslims when necessary”.

• Bukhari (2731), Book of Conditions, chapter of Jihad conditions.

• Ahmed bin Abdul Halim bin Abdul Salam ibn Taymiyah Aharani ad-Damashqi, the scholar who supported Sunnis and repressed heresies, known for his great classifications, died in 728. See his biography in “Underlying Gems” (1/144), Generation House.

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Milestones Sunan” (2/326).

• Tirmidhi (2473), Book of the Description of the day of Resurrection, Abu Issa said, “This is a good strange Hadith”.

• “Athafe al-Khira” (4/289) narrated by Isaac bin Raahawayh.

• Bukhari (2068), Book of sales, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him, buying goods”, and Muslim (1603), chapter of “The permissibility of Mortgage.”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/141).

• “Fath al-Baari” “Baari” (5/141)

• “Athafe al-Khira” (4/288), and Busayri said, “A Mursal Hadith narrated by men”.

• Bukhari (2089), Book of Sales, chapter of “Sawagh”, and Muslim (1979), Book of Beverages, chapter of “The prohibition of alcohol and that is made of grape juice, dates, raisins, malt and others.”

• “Saheeh Bukhari (2244), a Book of “Mortage”, chapter of “Lending goods”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/431).

• Abu Dawood (1716), Book of “Lost things”, chapter of “The definition of Lost Things”, a Hasan Hadith.

• Bukhari (2216) chapter of “Purchasing goods from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2056) Book of Beverages, chapter of “Being generous to guests”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/411).

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (3719), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Jester”, a weak Hadith narrated by Zama bin Saleh.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (1/361), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (1/361), a correct Hadith.

• Dawood (3562) Book of sales, chapter of “Ensuring borrowed goods”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2396) Book of Borrowing, chapter of “Borrowing dates for dates”.

• Imam Hafiz Abu Bakr Mohammed bin Ibrahim ibn Mundhir Alnisabure, the author of the classifications, such as “consensus” and “Middle”, and others died in 318, see his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (14/490).

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/480).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/269), a correct Hadith narrated by Hisham bin Hassan from al-Hasan.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/269)

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/556), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classification” (8/84), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classification” (8/84), a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (1/247)

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (2715) Book of Permission, chapter of “Teaching Syriac”, Abu Issa said, “This is a Hasan correct Hadith.”

• Malek in “Muwatta” (2/607), and Abu Dawood (3882), Book of Medicine chapter of “Gheelah”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (2077), Book of Medicine, Chapter of “Gheelah, and Nasa’i in “Sunan” (6 / 106) chapter of “Gheelah”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (3875), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Al-Ajwa Dates”, narrated by Mujahid who had never heard from Saad.

• Dawood (3883), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Amulets”, a correct Hadith. However, Sheikh al-Albaani narrated the same Hadith in different wordings (2972).

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1943), Chapter of “Neighbors’ rights”, and Bukhari in “Single literature” (1/50), chapter of “Neighbors”

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and Ibn Lahee’ah, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy.””Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/303).

• Abu Dawood (3839) book of Foods, chapter of “Eating in the utensils of the people of the book”, a correct Hadith that it is narrated by Bukhari (5488), Book of Slaughters, Chapter of “Hunting”, and Muslim (1930) Book of Hunting and sacrifices, chapter of “Hunting with dogs”.

• Bukhari (1356), Book of Funerals, “The funeral of Young Muslims”, and Abu Dawood (3095), chapter of “Visiting Treaty-Makers.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (3/40).

• Abu Dawood (5038), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Greeting back treaty-makers”, and al-Tirmidhi (2739), Book of Arts, chapter of “How to respond to non-Muslims who sneeze”, in his “Musnad” (4/400).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a Mursal Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a Mursal Hadith.

• Bukhari (2684), Book of Testimonies, chapter of “Fulfilling Promises”.

• Dawood (3626), Book of Akdya, chapter of “Treaty-makers’ testimoney”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (4566), Book of Interpretation, chapter of “The verse, ‘ And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you'”, and Muslim (1798), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’s patience, peace be upon him, with the hypocrites”.

• Bukhari (125), chapter of “The verse, “And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little”, and Muslim (2794), Book of the Description of the day of resurrection and heaven and hell, chapter of “Jews’ questions to the Prophet, peace be upon him, regarding the spirit and the vesrse, ” And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Tabaraani in “The Middle” and “The Enormous”, Ahmed in “Musnad”, Bazzaar, and Thumaamah bin Oqba, and its narrators are trustworthy, however mentioned a different narration of the same Hadith.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (10/769).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh – Charity” (14/541), Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani Bazzaar, and trustworthy narrators”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/438)

• Bukhari (1372), Book of Funerals, chapter of “The torment of the grave”, and Muslim (586) in a different version, Book of Mosques, chapter of “Seeking refuge from the torment of the grave”.

• Muslim (315), Book of Menstruation, chapter of “The description of the semen of men and women and that the child is created from their semen.”

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”, narrated by Bukhari (63), Book of science, chapter of “Science”, and Muslim (12), Book of Faith, chapter of “Asking about the pillars of Islam”.

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”.

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”, a weak Hadith.

• “Aoun al-Ma’bood” (2/108).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/335).

• “Fath al-Baari” (8/219).

• Dawood (3644), Book of science, chapter of “Narrating the stories of the People of the Book”, a weak Hadith, however Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith is narrated by Ibn Abi namla and thus it is an acceptable Hadith.”

• Bukhari (4811), Book of Interpretation, chapter of “The verse” And they did not appraise Allah with true appraisal”, and Muslim (2786), Book of the description of theday of resurrection and heaven and hell”.

• Bukhari (45), Book of Faith, chapter of “The increase and the decrease of faith”, and Muslim (3017), Book interpretation.

• Nasa’I (7/6), chapter of “The alliance in Ka’bah”, a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2118), Book of Expiation, chapter of “The Prohibition of saying what God wills and what you will”, a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (6/25), a correct Hadith.

• A Hasan Hadith narrated by Hisham bin Hobeish, Jaber, Hakem (3/9), and Tabarani in “Mujma” (6/58), and Ibn Kathir in “The Beginning and the End” (3/192) .

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazaar, Attabarani, and trustworthy narrators”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/72), (8/548).

• Bukhari (2619), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2620), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2615), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/230).

• Bukhari (2616), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2216), chapter of “purchase and sale with non-Muslims and enemies”, and Muslim (2056) Book of Beverages, chapter of “Being generous to guests”.

• (313) “Fath-Baari” (5/232).

• Dawood in “Sunan” (3055), Book of Islamic tax and Leadership, chapter of “The Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (4034), Book of Clothes, chapter of “Wearing long clothes”, a weak Hadith narrated by Ali bin Zaid bin Jad’aan.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Tabarani in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/270).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Ali bin Zaid bin Jadaan, who is known for his weak narrations”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/270).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani in “East” in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/271).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Mendel Ben Ali, who is known for his weak narrations”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/271).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/441).

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3497), Book of Morality, chapter of “The verse, ” O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you”

• .Bukhari (5990), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Kinship”

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/422).

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/179).

• Bukhari (5978), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Kinship with non-Muslim parents”, (5981) and the chapter of “Kinship with a non-Muslim brother”, and narrated the Hadith of Omar’s suit.

• “Single Literature” (24), chapter of “Being dutiful to a non-Muslim father”, a correct Hadith. And Muslim (1748), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The spoils of war”

• “Signs of Prophecy” (4/330).

• Bukhari (3558), Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The description of the Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2336), Book of virtues, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him, leaving his hair down”.

• Tirmidhi said, “This is a correct, Hasan, and strange Hadith narrated by Nayyar bin Makram, whom we only know from the Hadith of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Zinad. Tirmidhi (3194), chapter of “The Romans”

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (1311), Book of Funerals, chapter of “Walking in the funeral of a Jew”, and Muslim (960), book of Funerals, chapter of “executing funerals”.

• Bukhari (1312) Book of Funerals, chapter of “Walking in the funeral of a Jew”, and Muslim (961), book of Funerals, chapter of “executing funerals”.

• Imam Hafiz Abu Fadl Ayaz bin Musa bin Ayaz Aleihsba al-Andalusi al-Maliki, owner of the famous classifications, who died in 544, see his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (20/212).

• “Fath al-Baari” (3/181).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/212), and Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/353), narrated by Jaber Aljafee, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/212), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/353), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/213), a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari, Book of Commandments, Chapter of “Giving one third of the bequest”.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/352), a correct Hadith.

• Darami in “Sunan” (2/517) a correct Hadith.

• Muslim (2255), a book of Poetry.

• Abu Dawood (3662), Book of Science, Chapter of “Narrating the stories of the children of Israel”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (3663), Book of science, Chapter of “Narrating the stories of the children of Israel”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2276), Book of Employment, chapter of “What to give the one who reads Ruqya”, and Muslim (2201), Book of Peace, chapter of “The permissibility to take payment on Roqya.

• .Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1943), Chapter of “Neighbors’ Rights”, and Bukhari in “Single Literature” (1/50) chapter of “Visiting neighbor first”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabaraniyy in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy”.”Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/36).

• Bukhari (3008), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Clothing captives”, and Muslim (2773) Book of the attributes of the hypocrites.

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/21), narrated from Bukhari (3050), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The ransom of non-Muslims”, and Muslim (463), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Praying the prayers he missed”

• Bukhari (5436) book of Foods, chapter of “Gravy”, and Muslim (2041) Book of Beverages, chapter of “The permissibility of eating broth and pumpkin, and honoring guests.”

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani, and Ibn Lahee’ah, who is known for narrating Hasan Hadiths, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/303).

• Abu Dawood (5156), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, a correct Hadith.

• Malik in “Mutih” (1085), and Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classified” (6/18), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (6/285), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (3/108), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classified” (6/124).

• Bukhari (2125), Book of Sales, chapter of “The Prohibition of Sakhab in the market”.

• Darami in “Sunan” (1/16).

• Bukhari (5765), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Are we allowed to extracted magic?”, and Muslim (2189) chapter of “Magic”.

• Bukhari (3175), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should we pardon traety-makers who used magic?”

• Bukhari (3175), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should we pardon traety-makers who used magic?”

• Bukhari (3906), Book of the Virtues of Ansar, chapter of “The migration of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companions to Madina”.

• Bukhari (3169), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should Muslims forgive non-Muslims’ treachery”.

• Bukhari (2617), Book of Donation, chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2190), Book of Peace, chapter of “Poison”.

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh – Charity” (2/170).

• “The Beginning and the End” (8/213), and Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (5/145), a very weak Hadith, as mentioned in Maghazi Ibn Ishaq.

• “Distinguishing companions” (2/573).

• Bukhari (6926), Book of “Asking apostates to repent”, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2163), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• Bukhari (6927), Book of “Asking apostates to repent”, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2165), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• Tirmidhi (1213), Book of Sales, chapter of “The Permissibility of purchasing goods and paying for them later on”, Abu Issa said, “Aisha’s Hadith is a strange Hasan Hadith, narrated by Nasa’i in “Sunan” (7/294), Book of sales”, chapter of ” purchasing goods and paying for them later on”.

• Bayhaqi in “Major” (9/118), a correct Hadith.

• “The Beginning and the End” by Ibn Katheer (4/301), a Mursal Hadith. See: “Weak series” (1163).

• Bukhari (2913), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Leaving the Imam at noon, and lying under the shades of trees.”, and Muslim (843) chapter of “Fear prayer”.

• Muslim (868) book of Friday, chapter of “Prayer and sermon mitigation”.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/314).

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3045) Book of Jihad, chapter of “Can a man be imprisoned, and praying before getting killed.

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (3/333), and “The Beginning and the End” (4/69).

• “The Beginning and the End” (4/270).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/51).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (11/607), a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/233), “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani in “The Small” and “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy, however Muhammad ibn Abi Yahya did not narrate from the companions, and thus is a Mursal Hadith.

• “Muwatta” (2/719), a Mursal Hadith narrated from Sa’ed from Omar.

• Abdul Razzaq “The classified” (11/326) a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/250),” Attabarani in “The Enormous” and his narrators are trustworthy.

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2426).

• Bukhari (2356) Book of Musaqah, chapter of “Debating over a well and arbitration”, and Muslim (138), “The stern warning for whoever takes the rights of Muslim with a falsified testimony”

• Abu Naim in “Ornament” (4/140), and Ali bin Abdullah bin Muawiya, see his translation in “The Tongue”.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/240) a correct Hadith.

• “Dictionary” Ibn Almqre (p 412).

• “Series of Eloquence” by Ibn Jarir. (4/265)

• “The West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 50).

• Muslim (1731), chapter of “The Imam assigning a prince for delegations and his commandments.”

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/246).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/577).

• Tirmidhi (1548) Book of biographies, chapter of “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”. Tirmidhi said, “Narrated from Burayda, Nu’man bin Muqren, Ibn Umar, and Ibn Abbas, and Salman bin Hasan’s Hadith is a hassan Hadith which we know only from the Hadith of ‘Ata’ ibn Sa’eb, and I heard Muhammad say, ‘Abu Albkhteri was born after Salman and Ali died.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/553), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Middle”, and Othman bin Yahya Alkerksana, and his narrators are trustworthy”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Ya’la, and Tabaraani, and one of its narrators are trustworthy, “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/552), and “Athafe al-Khira” (6/331).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/107) a weak Hadith as Bayhaqi said.

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/557), “Narrated by Attabarani, and Yahya bin Abdulhamid Alhmona, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/561), “Narrated by Attabarani”, A Hasan Hadith wich Haythami mentioned in “Maima az-Zawaa’id”, chapter of “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”.

• Bukhari (314) and (315) Book of Jihad, chapter of “The killing of women and children in battle”, and Muslim (1744), chapter of “The prohibition of the killing of women and children in battle”.

• “High Demands” (2/149), narrated by Isaac, and Busayri said, “Narrated by Ahmad, and his narrators are trustworthy”.”Athafe al-Khira” (6/377).

• “High Demands” (2/150), narrated by Abu Ya’la (13/414), Ibn Wahb, and Ibn Lahee’ah a, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Abu Ali (4/422), a weak Hadith narrated by Ikrima, and Dawood Bin Husain, and Ismail ibn Abi Uys, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (1/341).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (13/320). And Haythami said in “Majma” (6/444), “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani and his narrators are trustworthy”.

• Abu Dawood (2613), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Calling non-Muslims to Islam”, a weak Hadith narrated by Khalid bin Alfazer, as Ibn Hajar said in “Attahzeeb”.

• Abu Dawood (2669), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The killing of women”, and Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2842), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Raids and the killing of women and boys”, a correct Hadith. And Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2842), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Raids and the killing of women and boys”

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/240) a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/484), a correct Hadith, narrated by Zaid, through Abu Bakr, and Abu Hurayrah, and Zaid ibn Thabit.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified”(6/484) narrated by Laith ibn Abi Salim, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/483).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/484), a correct Hadith.

• “High Demands” (2/174), an elevated Hadith narrated by Ibn Abu Omar, Abu Ya’la Bin Umaya, Tha’laba ibn al-Hakam, and Zaid bin Khalid al-Juhani, see: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/390).

• “High Demands” (2/174), a Mursal Hadith narrated by al-Harith, and Lahee’ah. See “Athafe al-Khira” (6/391).

• Haythami said in “Majma” (6/86), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Small” and “The Enormous”.

• Sa’ed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Abu Salamah, and Umar ibn Abi Salamah from Omar, an interrupted Hadith as Bukhari said.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Musa bin Obeida, who is known for his weak narrations. See his biography in “Attahzeeb and Attakreeb” (10/318).

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a Hasan Hadith narrated by Abu Shihab, Abed Rabbo Ben Nafi Kanani, and Abu Muawiya.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/231), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Ibn Suraqa, see his biography in “The Amendment” by Ibn Abi Hatim.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/194), a correct Hadith as Ibn Hajar said in his book “The Habeer Summery” (4/122).

• Abu Obeid in “Funds” (48), and Ibn al-Qayyim in “The verdicts of treaty-makers” (40).

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/635), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Middle”, and Abdullah bin Saleh, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy, however it has some weak aspects”.

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/344), and Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/147), a weak Hadith narrated by Abi al-Janoob.

• “Athafe al-Khira” (7/11), narrated by Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/198).

• “Arabs’ Tongue” (2/489), House of Thought.

• “Islamic Tolerance”, by Dr. Ali Juma Mohammed, piety website.

• Shaykh Abu Abdullah Abdul Rahman bin Nasser Al-Saadi, owner of the famous classifications and interpretations, most notably, “The interpretation of the words of Al-Karim Ar-Rahman.” See his biography in the book “The Life of a Figure”, Attaiar House, Qassim (437)

• “”The Interpretation of the words of Al-Karim al-Mannan” (1/305).

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/440).

• Hafiz Ismail bin Omar bin Katheer al-Qurashi ad-Damashqi, owner of the famous classifications, such as “The Beginning and the End”, “The Interpretation of the Great Quran”, and “Shortcut to Modern Science”, died in 774. See his biography in “Underlying Gems” (1 / 373).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/781).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (3/207).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (1/416).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yousuf (146), and “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 66).

• “The History of nations and kings” (2/538).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 76)

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 67)

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 124).

• “The Encyclopedia on the Tolerance of Islam” (1/431).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/7).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/341).

• The book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 94).

• “Differences” (3/14).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. See: “Ibn Abidin’s Footnotes” (4/171), House of Thought.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (3/135) , narrated by Anas.

• “Sahih Muslim” (1738), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”, narrated by Abu Sa’eed.

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/280).

• “The Encyclopedia on the Tolerance of Islam “(336), by Mohammed Sadiq Arjun.

• “The Correct Answer” (1/312).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 62).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/140)

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/146).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/304).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/306).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/352).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/421).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• The book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 95).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 195)

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/141).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/338).

• “Milestone Sunan” (2/326).

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/301).

• “The Employment of non-Muslims” (p. 249).

• “The spirit of Meanings” (15/297), “The Employment of non-Muslims”(p. 341).

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/601).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/639).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/352).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 150).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran”, (4/142).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 154).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 152).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 153).

• See the book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 94).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 289).

• “Differences” (3/15). And “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 58)

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/45).

• See “The Beginning and the End” (12/323).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. Narrated by Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/205).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 50).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/246).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/557).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 15).

• “The Beginning and the End (7/98).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/422).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/613).

• Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Bakr al-Ansari Khazraji Qurtubi, an interpreter who died in 671, See his biography in “Nafh al-Ta’eb” (2/685), by Ibn Mqr’e.

• “The collection of the Verdicts of the Quran” (8/101).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers”

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 126).

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 144).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. Narrated

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 139).

• “Differences” (3/14) and “West’s Tolerance with Muslims – Critical Study) (74).

• “Funds” by Abu Obeid (140 pp.), and “West’s Tolerance with Muslims – Critical Study” (74).

 

 

 

 

تسامح الإسلام مع غير المسلمين

Islam’s Tolerance with non-Muslims

All praise is to Allah, Thou we worship, Thou we seek for forgiveness and refuge from our sins. No one will guide whom Allah sends astray, and no one will mislead whomever Allah guides. And I bear witness that there is no deity but, Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
There is a wealth of evidence from Qur’an and Sunnah indicating Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims. This is even emphasized by non-Muslims such as Orientalist Bernard Lewis, who said, “Muslims’ tolerance with Christians who reside in Muslim countries indicates that Muslims are far more tolerant than Christians.” (2). Thomas Arnold said, “Arabs’ tolerance made a lot of people convert to Islam.” (3). Victor Sahab said, “Christians who were subjected to an ever-increasing oppression were saved by Islamic conquest, and were given the choice of either converting to Islam or keeping their religion under Muslims’ protection. Thus, the Egyptian church, which escaped from Byzantine massacres, returned to practice its rituals publically after the Islamic conquest, in a time when all countries banned any religion other than their religion.” (4).

This research cites evidence from the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him, which demonstrate Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims. These evidences were taken from the following resources:

1. “The Six Books” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Nasa’i), Al-Muwatta, Al-Darimi, the Signs of Prophecy by Abu Nu’aim, Al-Bayhaqi, and the Mustadrak by Al-Hakim.

2. Al-Matalib Al-Aliah by Ibn Hajar, Majma’ Al-Zawa’id by Al-Haithami, Ittihaf Al-Kheirah by Al-Busairi, and Saheeh Ibn Haban’s additions entitled “Mawarid Al-Tham’an.”

3. “Al-Musannaf” by Ibn Abi Shaybah, “Al-Musannaf” by Abdul-Razzaq As-San’ani, “Al-Mu’jam” by Bin Almuqri’, “The Beginning and the End” by Ibn Katheer, Ibn Hajar’s Hadith Encyclopedia, and Albani’s books.

4. Hadith graded authentic by Al-Albani.

5. Weak Hadith narrations were deleted

6. I collected more than 370 Hadiths.

7. I indicted each Hadith’s narrator, and his book.

8. I enlisted the most prominent narrators’ names.

9. I mentioned some Hadith’s benefits.

The research has been arranged to indicate the following:

Part I:

Introduction:

– Islam urges Muslims to be tolerant with non-Muslims.

– Islam is a religion of guidance.

– Tolerance in belief and worship.

– Tolerance with treaty-makers.

– The sanctity of People of the Book and treaty-makers’ lives.

– The sanctity of their property and honor.

– Oppressing them is impermissible.

– Treaty commitment.

– Giving alms to impoverished People of the Book is permissible.

– Arbitration among treaty-makers.

– Acceptance of non-Muslims’ testimony.

– Acceptance of their intercession in some cases.

– The verdict of greeting and shaking hands with a non-Muslim.

– Greeting idolaters.

– The permissibility of treating them with generosity.

– The permissibility of eating the People of the Book’s sacrifices.

– To deal with them in buying, selling, and other transactions.

– To learn their science and language.

– The treatment of a non-Muslim patient.

– The right of a non-Muslim neighbor.

– Visiting non-Muslims.

– Praying for them.

– Interacting with non-Muslims.

– Giving them gifts and accepting their gifts.

– Keeping ties with non-Muslim relatives.

– Approval of the People of the Book.

– Consoling and burying treaty-makers.

– Inheritance and wills.

– Marriage with the people of the book.

– Hadiths about them.

– Treating them well.

– Accepting their invitations.

– Liberating them.

– Pardoning them.

– Justice.

– Manifestations of tolerance in Jihad.

– Manifestations of tolerance in the tribute.

Part II: This section includes jurisprudential verdicts derived from Hadith and practical examples which demonstrate Islam’s tolerance.

This research also includes an index of the Prophet’s Hadiths, and a general index.

Part I

Introduction:

Islam is a tolerant religion that came to relieve humans of their previous burdens and obligations, as Allah said, “And relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them.” [Al-‘Araf: 175]. He also said, “Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews, and them constantly hindering from Allah’s Path, We forbade them good things which were (before) made lawful unto them.” [Al-Nisa: 160]. Allah also said, “Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error! Our Lord! Lay not on us such a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us! Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear! Pardon us, absolve us and have mercy on us. Thou art our Protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving folk.” [Al-Baqarah: 286]. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Leave me as long as I leave you, for the people who were before you were ruined because of their questions and their differences over their prophets.” (6). He also said, “I was sent with tolerant monotheism.” (7).

Moreover, Allah bestows His Mercy on all humans whether they are believers or disbelievers, obedient or disobedient, as Allah said, “My mercy encompasses all things.” [Al-‘Araf: 156] (9-10). The prophet, peace be upon him, said, “The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He who is in the heaven will show mercy to you.” (11). Ibn Hajar said (12), “Ibn Battal said (13), ‘This compassion is bestowed upon all creatures, believers, infidels, and animals.'” (14). On the other hand, Allah does not show mercy towards the unmerciful, whether they are believers or a disbelievers, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Allah will not show mercy to he who shows no mercy to other people.” (15).

Also, Allah urged Muslims to look after Muslim and non-Muslim orphans and promised them paradise, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I and the one who looks after an orphan will be like this in Paradise,” (showing his middle and index fingers and joining them). (16-17).

Furthermore, Allah’s Mercy is even bestowed upon animals and birds, as Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud out of excessive thirst. The man said, ‘This dog is suffering from the same problem as I was.’ So he went down the well, filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up and gave the water to the dog. Allah thanked him for his deed and forgave him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving animals?” He replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any creature.” (18). He also said, “A prostitute saw a dog moving around a well on a hot day and hanging out its tongue because of thirst. She drew water for it in her shoe and she was pardoned.” (19).

Abdul-Rahman Bin Abdullah narrated that his father said, “Once we were on a journey with the Prophet and he had gone to relieve himself. We saw a sparrow with two young ones and we took them. The sparrow then came and began to spread out its wings. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, came and said, ‘Who has pained this bird by the loss of her children? Give her children back to her.’ We burned an ant hill. He asked, ‘Who burned this?’ We replied, ‘We did.’ He said, ‘It is not fitting that anyone but the Lord of the fire should punish with fire.'”(20-21). Also, Ibn Omar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “A woman went to Hell for tormenting a cat; she locked it inside didn’t feed it, nor let it out so that it could hunt for its own food.” (22).

Likewise, there are various Hadiths urging Muslims to be merciful and tolerant with non-Muslims. Here are a few:

1. Abu Hurairah reported that someone said to Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, “Invoke Allah’s Curse upon the polytheists.” He said, “I have not been sent as an invoker of curses; I have been sent as a mercy.” (23).

2. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The people of Mecca asked the Messenger to make Safa out of gold, and to remove mountains so that they could plant crops. Allah said, ‘If you wish, we will give them what they asked for, but if they disbelieve We will obliterate them. Or if you wish, We will grant them respite.’ He said, ‘Grant them respite.’ Then Allah revealed this verse, ‘And nothing prevented us from sending signs except that the former peoples denied them. And we gave Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign.'” [Isra: 59] (24).

3. Al-Bayhaqi narrated in “The Signs of Prophecy” (2/272), “And if you wish I will open the door of repentance and mercy to them.” The Messenger of Allah said, “Then open the door of repentance and mercy to them.”

4. Aisha once asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “Did you encounter a day harder than the day of the battle of Uhud?” The Prophet replied, “Your people have troubled me a lot, and the worse trouble was on the day of ‘Aqaba when I presented myself to Ibn `Abd-Yalail bin `Abd-Kulal and they did not respond to my request. So I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and proceeded on, and could not relax till I found myself at Qarn al-Tha’alib where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Gabriel in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s saying to you, and what they have replied back to you. Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The Angel of the Mountains called and greeted me, and then said, ‘O Muhammad! Order what you wish. If you like, I will let the two mountains fall on them.’ The Prophet said, ‘No. I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone, and will worship none besides Him.’ (25). Thus, these Hadiths demonstrate Islam’s immense tolerance, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to supplicate against the infidels and asked Allah to guide them, though they tormented him.”

5. Abdullah said, “Quraysh refused to obey the Prophet, so he asked Allah to afflict them with years of famine similar to those of Prophet Joseph. So they were stricken with famine and fatigue, so much so that they ate even bones. A man would look towards the sky and imagine seeing something like smoke between him and the sky because of extreme fatigue. So Allah revealed, ‘Watch for the Day when the sky will bring a visible smoke, covering people; this is a painful torment.’ [Al-Dukhan: 10-11] Then Abu Sufyan came to the prophet and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger, invoke Allah to send rain for the tribes of Mudar for they are on the verge of destruction.’ So the Prophet said, ‘For the tribes of Mudar? Verily, you are a brave man!’ But the Prophet prayed for rain and it rained for them. Then the Verse was revealed, ‘But truly you will return (to disbelief).’ [Al-Dukhan: 15]. But when prosperity and welfare was restored, they reverted to their ways of heathenism, whereupon Allah revealed, ‘On the Day when We shall seize you with a Mighty Grasp. We will indeed exact retribution.’ [Al-Dukhan :16] The narrator said, ‘That was the day of the Battle of Badr.'” This hadith also indicates Islam’s mercy, for the Prophet prayed for them despite their constant abuse against Muslims.

6. Abu Hurairah said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, sent some horsemen to Najd. They captured a man from the tribe of Banu Hanifa named Thumamah Bin Uthal and bound him to one of the pillars of the mosque. Then the Prophet came out to see him and said, ‘O Thumamah, what do you think?’ He replied, ‘Muhammad, I have good opinion of you. If you kill me, you will kill a person who has spilt blood. If you do me a favor, you will do a favor to a grateful person. If you want wealth, ask and you will get what you will demand.’ The Messenger left him for two days, and came to him again and said, ‘O Thumamah, What do you think?’ He replied, ‘What I have already told you.’ Then the Messenger said, ‘Set Thumamah free.’ Once free, Thumamah went to a palm-grove near the mosque and took a bath. Then he entered the mosque and said, ‘ I bear witness that there is no true god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant and His Messenger. O Muhammad, by Allah, there was no face on the earth more hateful to me than your face, but now your face has become to me the dearest of all faces. By Allah, there was no religion more hateful to me than your religion, but now your religion has become the dearest of all religions to me. By Allah, there was no city more hateful to me than your city, but now your city has become the dearest of all cities to me. Your horsemen captured me when I intended to go for Umrah, Now what is your opinion in the matter? ‘The Messenger announced good tidings to him and told him to go on Umrah. When he reached Mecca, somebody said to him, ‘Have you changed your religion? He said: No! I have rather embraced Islam with the Messenger, peace be upon him. By Allah, you will not get a single grain of wheat from Yamamah until it is permitted by the Messenger of Allah.'”

7. Ibn Hisham added, “Then he went out to Al-Yamamah and prohibited them from carrying anything to Mecca, so they wrote to the Messenger, ‘You asked us to keep in touch with our relatives, yet you cut our ties’, then the Messenger wrote to him.”(28). Ibn Hajar said, “Thumama’s story demonstrates the Prophet’s mercy on the infidel captive. Therefore, it is permissible to be kind and tolerant with infidel war captives, for they might convert to Islam.”

8. Anas Bin Malik narrated that the Messenger, peace be upon him, said, “By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, Allah bestows His Mercy only upon the merciful.” His Companions replied, “O Messenger of Allah, we are all merciful.” He said, “I do not mean the one who has mercy on his friend, but who is merciful with all people.” (29).
Islam is the religion of guidance

Islam is the guidance for mankind, as Allah said about the People of the Book, “If only the People of the book would believe and ward off (evil), surely we should remit their sins from them and surely We should bring them into Gardens of Delight. If they had observed the Torah and the Gospel and that which was revealed unto them from their Lord, they would surely have been nourished from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them there are people who are moderate, but many of them are of evil conduct.” [Al-Maeda: 65-66]. Allah also said, ‘It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for mankind, with clear proofs of guidance, and as a Criterion.” [Al-Baqarah: 185]. “This Qur’an guides to that which is most suitable.” [Al-Isra: 9]. “We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and whoso follows My Guidance shall neither fear nor grieve. But they who disbelieve and deny our revelations shall be inhabitants of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.” [Al-Baqarah: 39].

The following Hadiths indicate the keenness of Islam to guide all people:

9. Abu Hurairah narrated that At-Tufail Bin ‘Amr came to the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of Allah, the tribe of Daws has disobeyed and refused to embrace Islam, so invoke Allah’s Wrath upon them.” But He said, “O Allah, guide the tribe Of Daws and let them come to us.” (30). Thus, it is permissible to pray for infidels’ guidance. (31-32).

10. Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “Allah’s Messenger wrote to Caesar to invite him to Islam. He sent the letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi, whom he ordered to hand it over to the Governor of Busra, who would forward it to Caesar. As a sign of gratitude to Allah, Caesar had walked from Homs to Jerusalem when Allah granted Him victory over the Persian forces. So, when the letter of the Prophet reached Caesar, he read it then said, ‘Summon one of his people, so I can ask him about Allah’s Messenger.'” (33)

11. Abdullah Bin Abbas said, “Abu Sufyan Bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraysh. They were merchants doing business in Syria, at the time when the Prophet had truce with Abu Sufyan and the Quraysh infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Jerusalem. Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. Heraclius’s translator said to them, “Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?” Abu Sufyan replied, “I am the nearest relative to him.” Heraclius said, “Bring him close to me and make his companions stand behind him.” Abu Sufyan added, “Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding the Prophet and that if I told a lie my companions should contradict me.” Abu Sufyan added, “By Allah, had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was: ‘What is his family status amongst you?’ I replied, ‘He belongs to a noble family amongst us.’ Heraclius asked, ‘Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?’ I replied, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius asked, ‘Do the nobles or the poor follow him?’ I replied, ‘It is the poor who follow him.’ He said, ‘Are his followers increasing decreasing?’ I replied, ‘They are increasing.’ He then asked, ‘Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius said, ‘Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim to be a Prophet?’ I replied, ‘No.’ Heraclius said, ‘Does he break his promises?’ I replied, ‘No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.’ I could not find any opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, ‘Have you ever had a war with him?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ Then he said, ‘What was the outcome of the battles?’ I replied, ‘Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we were.’ Heraclius said, ‘What does he order you to do?’ I said, ‘He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our kith and kin.'”

“Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following: ‘I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing; your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man’s statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king; your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah. I then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. All Prophets have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and left his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and this is (the sign of) true faith when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Messengers never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.’ Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah’s Messenger which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: “In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. (This letter is) from Muhammad the Servant and Messenger of Allah to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your peasants. I recite to you Allah’s Statement, ‘O People of the Book, come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: bear witness that we are Muslims.'” Abu Sufyan then added, “When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn Abi Kabsha: the Prophet Muhammad has become so prominent that even the Byzantine King is afraid of him. Then I become sure that the Prophet would be the conqueror in the near future and I embraced Islam.”

The sub narrator added, “Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of Jerusalem and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Syria. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting Jerusalem he got up in the morning and was sad. Some of his priests asked him why he felt sad. Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, ‘Last night, when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had become the conqueror.’ The people replied, ‘Who are they who practice circumcision? Aside from the Jews nobody practices circumcision. You should not be afraid of them. Just issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.’

While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah’s Messenger to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, Heraclius ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. After seeing him, the people told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, ‘Arabs also practice circumcision.’ After hearing that, Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as knowledgeable as himself. He then left for Homs and stayed there until he received the reply to his letter from his friend, who agreed that the man who had appeared amongst the Arabs was indeed a Prophet. Heraclius then invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble at his palace in Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the gates of his palace be locked. Then he came out and said, ‘O Byzantines! If you want success and seek guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet.’ Upon hearing the views of Heraclius, the people ran towards the gates of the palace and found them locked. Heraclius realized that they hated Islam and lost hope of them embracing the faith. He then ordered them to be brought back in audience. When they returned, he said, ‘What I said was just a test to see the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.’ The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius’s story.”

Al-Nawawi said (35): “This story demonstrates that we must invite disbelievers to Islam before we fight them. This also indicates that it is permissible to address non-Muslims with names that show reverence to encourage them to convert to Islam as the Prophet, peace be upon him, did with Hercules.”

12. Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Chosroes (the King of Persia), Caesar, Negus and every other despot inviting them to Islam. This Negus was not the one for whom the Prophet, peace be upon him, performed the funeral prayers. (37). Al-Nawawi said, “This Hadith indicates that it is permissible to write to non-Muslims and invite them to Islam.” (38).

13. Anas Bin Malik said, “When the Prophet intended to write to the Byzantines, it was said to him, ‘Those people will not read your letter unless it is stamped.’ So the Prophet took a silver ring and had ‘Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’ engraved on it. It is as if I am looking at its glitter in his hand now.” (39). This Hadith indicates that we must use what non-Muslims use in their writings when inviting them to Islam.

14. Abu Hurairah said, “While we were in the mosque, the Prophet came out and said, ‘Let us proceed to the Jews.’ So we went out with him till we came to Bait Al-Midras. The Prophet stood up there and called them, saying, ‘O assembly of Jews! Convert to Islam and you will be safe!’ They said, ‘You have conveyed Allah’s Message, O Abul-Qasim.’ The Prophet then said to them, ‘That is what I want. Embrace Islam and you will be safe.’ They said, ‘You have conveyed the message, O Abul-Qasim.’ The Prophet then said to them, ‘That is what I want. ‘” (40).

15. Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet stood up when the following was revealed to him: ‘And warn your closest kindred,’ and said, ‘O Quraysh! Buy your souls from your Lord, I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Banu ‘Abd Manaf! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O ‘Abbas Bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Safiyyah, aunt of the Messenger of Allah! I cannot avail you anything before Allah. O Fatimah! Ask me for whatever you want, I cannot avail you anything before Allah.'” (41).

16. Ibn Abbas said, “When the Qur’anic Verse: ‘Warn your nearest kinsmen’ was revealed, the Prophet started calling the various big families of Quraysh: ‘O Bani Fihr! O Bani Adi!'” Abu Hurairah said, “When the Verse: ‘Warn your nearest kinsmen’ was revealed, the Prophet said (in a loud voice), ‘O people of Quraysh!'” These Hadiths indicate the Prophet’s tolerance, peace be upon him, in inviting his people to Islam.

17. Ibn Omar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “O Allah! Glorify Islam with one of these two men dearest to you: Abu Jahl or Omar Ibn Al-Khattab.” He also said, “Omar was the dearest to him.” (43). This Hadith indicates that it’s permissible to pray for non-Muslim to convert to Islam.

18. Anas Bin Malik narrated that Zayd ibn Thabit said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, looked towards Yemen and said, ‘O Allah make their hearts come to us (i.e.: let them convert to Islam).’ He then looked towards Syria and said, ‘O Allah makes their hearts to come to us.’ He then looked towards Iraq and said, ‘O Allah make their hearts to come to us, and bestow your blessing upon our food.'” (44).

19. Jabir said, “They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, the bows of Thaqeef have burnt us, so invoke Allah’s wrath upon them.’ He Said, ‘O Allaah, guide Thaqeef.'” (45). These Hadiths demonstrate Islam’s tolerance, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked Allah to guide them instead of invoking Allah’s wrath on them.

20. Sahl Bin Sa’d said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said on the day of the Khaybar battle, ‘Tomorrow I will give the flag to somebody who will be given victory and who loves Allah and His Prophet and is loved by Allah and His Prophet.’ That whole night everyone wondered who would receive the flag hoped to be that person. In the morning, the Prophet asked, ‘Where is `Ali?’ He was told that `Ali was suffering from eye-trouble, so he applied saliva to `Ali’s eyes and invoked Allah to cure him. `Ali was immediately cured as if he had no ailment to begin with. The Prophet then gave him the flag. `Ali said, ‘Should I fight them till they become like us?’ The Prophet said, ‘Go to them patiently and calmly till you enter the land. Then invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels.'” (46). Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith directs us to invite non-Muslims to Islam instead of killing them.”(47).

21. Anas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Bakr Bin Wa’el and said, “From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to the Bakr Bin Wa’el. Accept Islam and you shall be safe.” Then Anas said, “This letter was read by only one man of them from Bani Dabia.” (48).

22. Abu Burda heard his father say that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There are three who will be given a twofold reward: a man who has a slave woman whom he treats well and teaches well, then he manumits her and marries her – such a person will get a double reward; and a believer from the People of the Book who has been a true believer and then he believes in the Prophet – such a person will get a double reward; and a slave who observes Allah’s Rights and Obligations and is sincere to his master.” (49). These two Hadiths indicate the keenness of Islam on calling the People of the Book to Islam made by multiplying their reward if they accept the faith.

23. Ibn Abbas said, “Al-Waleed Bin Mughirah came, then the Messenger, peace be upon him, recited the Qur’an to him, and he was convinced. Then Abu Jahl said, ‘Your people will give you money if you oppose Muhammad.’ He said, ‘But I’m the wealthiest of Quraysh.’ He said, ‘Then at least say something that proves that you oppose him.’ He said, ‘What am I supposed to say? I am one of most knowledgeable in poetry, but I’ve never hear a thing as sweet and charming as these verses.’ He said, ‘Your people will never be pleased with you until you say something bad about him.’ He then said, ‘I think this is mere magic that affects people.’ Then Allah revealed, ‘Leave Me (to deal) with him whom I created lonely, and then bestowed upon him ample means, and sons abiding in his presence.'” (50). This Hadith demonstrates Islam’s virtues, which Walid bin Mugirah – who was not a Muslim – approved of.

24. Al-Dahhak Bin Nu’man said, “Masruq Bin Wa’el converted to Islam and said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I would like you to send a letter to my tribe inviting them to Islam.’ He said to Muawiyah, “Write for him.” Muawiya wrote, “In the name of Allah the Merciful. To the people of Hadramout: pray and give alms.” (52). This indicates Islam’s keenness to guide non-Muslims.

25. Said Bin Musayyib said, “When Abu Talib’s death approached, the Prophet went to him while Abu Jahl and `Abdullah Bin Abu Umayyah were present with him. The Prophet said, ‘O uncle, say: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, so that I may argue for your case before Allah.’ Then Abu Jahl and `Abdullah Bin Abu Umayyah said, ‘O Abu Talib! Do you want to renounce `Abdul-Muttalib’s religion?’ Then the Prophet said, ‘I will keep on asking forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden to do so.’ Allah revealed, ‘It is not befitting for the Prophet and those who believe to seek forgiveness for the polytheists – even if they be close relatives – after it has become clear that they are inhabitants of the hellfire.'” (53).

26. Mu’ath Bin Jabal narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “O Mu’ath, if Allah gives guidance to the people of shirk through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels.” (54).

27. ‘Uqbah Bin ‘Amir Al-Juhani narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Paradise is the reward of anyone who guides another man to Islam.” (55).

28. Sahl Bin Sa’d reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Proceed and do not hurry. When you enter their territory, call them to embrace Islam and inform them of Allah’s Rights which they should observe, for by Allah, even if Allah guides a single man through your efforts, that would be better for you than red camels.” (56).

29. Al-Bayhaqi narrated in “Al-Dala’il” (2/308), that Yunus Ibn Ishaq said: This is a letter from the Messenger of Allah to Negus: “Peace be upon those who follow guidance, believe in Allah and His Messenger, and bear witness that there nothing is deserving of worship except Allah alone with no partner nor son, and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. I extend to you the invitation to accept Allah’s call, for I am His Messenger. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. ‘O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah. But if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ [Al-Imran: 64]. If you reject Islam, you will be responsible for the sins of your Christian people.” (Hadith Mursal).

30. Al-Zuhri reported that Abdullah Bin Abdul-Qari’ said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a letter with Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah to Cyrus, the King of Alexandria. He accepted the letter, honored Hatib, and sent to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a present of cloths, a mule, and two maids; one of them is the mother of his son Ibraham, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the other to Muhammad Bin Qais Abdi.” (57).

31. Hatib said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent me to Cyrus, the King of Alexandria and I gave him the Prophets’ letter. I stayed at his home and he said to me, ‘I would like to ask you something.’ I said, ‘What would you like to ask me about?’ He said, ‘Isn’t your friend a prophet?’ I said, ‘Yes, he is a prophet.’ He said, ‘Then why didn’t he invoke Allah’s wrath on his people when they exiled him from his town?’ I said, ‘Do you bear witness that Jesus son of Mary is the Messenger of God?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why didn’t he invoke Allah’s wrath on his people when his people when they were about to crucify him.’ He told me, ‘You are a wise man who was sent by a wise man, deliver these gifts to Muhammad.’ He gave the Prophet, peace be upon him, two maids; one of them is the mother of his son Ibrahim, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the other to Muhammad Bin Qais Abdi.” (58). This narration indicates that we must gently invite others to Islam, and accept non-Muslims’ gifts.

32. Ishaq Bin Yasar said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Rakanah Ibn Al-Muttalib, ‘O Rakanah, why do you not fear Allah, and accept what I invite you to?’ He said, ‘I would follow you, if I confirmed that what you call for is the right path.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘What if I defeated you, would realize that what I call for is the right path?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Stand up so that I can wrestle you.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, defeated him and Rakanah said, ‘O Muhammad, this is a wonder that you managed to defeat me!’ He said, ‘If you wish, I will show something that is even more wondrous, if you fear Allah and follow my call.’ He said, ‘What?’ the Prophet said, ‘I will summon this tree that you see, and it will come to me.’ He said, ‘Summon it.’ The Prophet summoned the tree and it came to him, then he said to it, ‘Go back to your place.’ It went back, and then Rakanah went back to his people and told them about what he saw.” (59).

33. Tirmidhi narrated that Ibn Rakanah said, “Rakanah wrestled the Prophet, peace be upon him, and the Prophet defeated him.” Al-Tirmidhi said, “This is a strange Hadith, for we do not know Ibn Rakanah.” (60).

34. Ibn Ishaq said, “Obaidullah Bin Mughira and Abdullah Ibn Hazm narrated that As’ad Bin Zararah went with Mus’ab Bin Omair to Bani Ashal and Bani Zafar’s house, then Sa’d Bin Mu’ath said to Asid bin Hudayr – who were non-Muslims at the time – ‘Don’t let these two men who came to belittle us proceed to our house.’ Asid went to them and said, ‘What brings you here? Leave us alone, you just came to belittle us.’ Mus’ab said to him, ‘Just listen to what I have to say.’ He then sat down, and Mus’ab told him about Islam, and recited some verses from the Qur’an. Then Asid said, ‘This religion is so great, how can one convert to this religion?’ They said to him, ‘Wash your clothes, declare the testimony of faith, and then pray.’ He did so then went to Sa’d, and Sa’d said to him, ‘What happened to you?’ He said, ‘They agreed to go back if I listened to what they had to say, so I listened to them and they convinced me to convert to Islam.’ Raging with fury, Sa’d Bin Mu’ath took a spear in his hand and went to them. Then they said to him, ‘Just listen to what we have to say.’ He then sat down, and Mus’ab and As’ad told him about Islam and recited some verses from Surah Al-Zukruf. Then Sa’d converted to Islam and went back to his people and said, ‘O Bani Abdul-Ash’al, do you realize who I am?’ They said, ‘Our master and our leader.’ He said, ‘I will never listen to any word you utter, until you believe in Allah and His Messenger.’ Then the Bani Abdul-Ash’al tribe converted to Islam.” (61). This story demonstrates that calling others gently to Islam will make a lot of people convert to Islam.

35. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “People are like ores. Those who were excellent in the Days of Ignorance are excellent in Islam provided they acquire the knowledge and understanding of the religion.” (62). Al-Nawawi said, “This means that those who are morally upright in the Days of Ignorance, will be the best of people provided they acquire understanding of the religion.” (63). Ibn Hajar said, “Just like ores, honor never changes. Thus, Islam makes an honorable person even more honorable.” (64).

36. Sa’id Ibn Abi Burdah said, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, Mu’ath to Yemen, and said, “Show leniency; don’t be hard upon them; give them glad tidings; and do not create aversion. Work in collaboration and don’t disagree.” (65).

37. Zayd Ibn Aslam narrated that his father said, “Once when we were in Syria, I brought water for Omar Bin Al-Khattab to make ablution with. He said, ‘Where did you bring this fresh and sweet water from?’ I said, ‘From the house of an old Christian lady.’ Omar went to her and said, ‘O old woman, accept Islam and you will be safe.’ She revealed her head and said, ‘I am an old lady on the verge of death.’ Omar said, ‘O Allah bear witness.'” (66).

38. Adi Bin Hatim said, “I used to detest the Prophet, peace be upon, but I decided to go to him to see for myself whether he was a liar or a real prophet. When I came him, he said, ‘O Adi Bin Hatim, convert to Islam and you will be safe.’ I said, ‘But I am from the People of the Book.’ He said, ‘I know your religion better than you do.’ I said, ‘You know my religion more than I do?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet said, ‘Aren’t you a Christian?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Aren’t you a leader among your people?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Don’t you take the forth of the spoils of war?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘This is not permissible in your religion, O Adi bin Hatim. Accept Islam and you will be safe. I think what prevents you from converting to Islam is the privation of those you see around me, and you see that everyone is collaborating against us. Have you been to Hiira?’ I said, ‘No, but I know where it is.’ He said, ‘If you should live for a long time, you will certainly see that a lady will safely travel without an escort from Al-Hira and perform the Tawaf, and the treasures of Khosrau will be taken as spoils (he repeated this three times), and rich men will find no one to give alms to.’ Adi said, ‘I saw a lady traveling from Al-Hira till she performed the Tawaf without an escort. I was one of those who conquered the treasures of Khosrau, son of Hurmuz. And you will soon witness the third thing that the Prophet, peace be upon him, told me about.'” (67).

39. Abu Thar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You will soon conquer Egypt, which is known as ‘the Land of the Carat.’ When you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well, for they enjoy a covenant and kinship with you. When you see two people amongst them falling into dispute for the space of a brick, leave that land.” Then Abu Thar said, “I saw Abdul-Rahman Bin Shurahbil Bin Hasanah and his brother Rabi’ah disputing with one another for the space of a brick so I left that land.”

40. Suwaid said, “We once went to Abu Thar in Rabadha and he had a mantle over him, and his slave had one like it. We said, ‘Abu Thar, had you joined them together, it would have been a complete garment.’ Thereupon he said, ‘There was an altercation between me and one of my brothers. His mother was a non-Arab. I insulted his mother. He then complained to the Prophet, peace be upon him, who said to me, ‘Abu Thar, you are a person who still has the remnants of the days (of Ignorance).’ Thereupon I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, people usually insult the father and mother of the one who insults others. The Prophet said, ‘Abu Thar, you are a person who still has the remnants of Ignorance in him. Your servants are your brothers. Allah has put them in your care, so feed them with what you eat, clothe them with what you wear, and do not burden them beyond their capacities; but if you burden then, then help them.'” (88).

The following Hadiths emphasize that the bloodshed of treaty-makers is impermissible:

41. Abdullah Bin Amr narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years.”

42. Abu Bakrah narrated, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Allah will forbid Paradise to anyone who kills a treaty-maker with no justification.” (96). Another narration by Abu Bakrah states that the Messenger of Allah said, “Allah will forbid Paradise to anyone who kills a treaty-maker with no justification; he will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise.” (97).

43. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker with a covenant from Allah His Messenger has violated the covenant with Allah His Messenger, so he shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even though its fragrance can be sensed from the distance of seventy autumns.” (100).

44. Abdullah Bin ‘Amr said, “The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Whoever kills a treaty-maker will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, and its fragrance may be detected from a distance of forty years.” (101).

45. Al-Qasim Bin Al-Mukhaimirah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, although its fragrance may be detected from a distance of seventy years.” (102).

46. Ibn Shihab said, “Abu Bakr and Omar, may Allah be pleased with them, made the compensation for killing treaty-makers the same as the ransom for killing a Muslim.” (110).

47. Amru Bin Shuaib said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “The blood money for a man who makes a covenant is half of the blood money for a free man.” (111). However, the scholars differed in the matter of the blood money for Jews and Christians. Some scholars held that it is the same as the blood money for Muslims, while others held that it is the half of the blood money for Muslims. It was narrated from Omar Ibn Al-Khattab that he said, “The blood money for Jews and Christians is four thousand dirhams, and Magi’s blood money is eight hundred dirhams.” Malik Bin Anas, Shafi’i and Ishaq held this opinion, while Sufyan Al-Thawri and the people of Kufa held that the blood money for Jews and Christians is the same as that of Muslims.

48. Sufyan Ibn Hussein Al-Zuhri said, “Ibn Shas Al-Juzami killed a man from Syria, then Uthman Ibn Affan ordered to kill him, but Zubayr and some of the Companions stopped him from killing him, so he made him pay a ransom of a thousand dinars.”

49. Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyib said, “The blood money for Jews and Christians is a thousand dinars.” (112).

50. Anas said that a Jewish man was assassinated, then Omar Bin Al-Khattab made his blood money twelve thousand dirhams. (113).

51. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab wanted to shackle one of his companions who wounded a man of the People of the Book. The Muslims said, “You shouldn’t do this.” Omar said, “It is better to shackle those with weak minds.” (114). All the above mentioned Hadiths and stories emphasize that it is impermissible to kill treaty-makers, and that blood money must be paid by whoever kills them.

52. Jabir said, “We never killed non-Muslim merchants at the time of the Messenger, peace be upon him.” (115).

The Hadiths that indicate sanctity of Non-Muslims’ property and honor are as follows:

53. Abdur-Rahman Bin Abu Bakr said, “Once one-hundred and thirty people were accompanying the Prophet and he asked us whether anyone of us had food. There was a man who had a few handfuls of wheat mixed with water. Suddenly a very tall non-Muslim came driving sheep. The Prophet asked him, ‘Will you sell us a sheep or give us one as a gift?’ He said, ‘I will sell you one.’ The Prophet bought a sheep and it was slaughtered. He ordered that its liver and intestines be roasted. By Allah, the Prophet gave every one of the one-hundred and thirty people a piece of meat; he gave all those of them who were present and kept the shares of those who were absent. The Prophet then put its meat in two huge basins and all of them ate to their fill, and even then more food was left in the two basins which were carried on a camel.” (116).

The following Hadiths emphasize the sanctity of non-Muslims’ property and money:

54. Arabad As-Salimi said, “We went to Khyber with the Prophet, peace be upon him, then the ruler of Khyber came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘O Muhammad, are you going to slaughter our cattle, eat our crops and hit our women?’ The Prophet got angry and said, ‘O Ibn Auf, ride your horse and inform the people that Paradise is only for the believers, and command them to gather for prayer.’ They gathered and prayed with the Prophet, peace be upon him, and then he stood up and said, ‘One of you reclining on his couch may recon that Allah did not forbid anything except what is forbidden in this Qur’an. By Allah, I have preached, and ordered, and forbidden things that are like the Qur’an or more. And Allah does not permit you to enter the houses of the People of the Book without permission, nor hit their women, nor eat their crops, if they pay what they are obligated to.” (117). This Hadith emphasizes the sanctity of the wealth and honor of the People of the Book.

55. The sons of the Companions narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I shall argue against anyone who oppresses, insults, overburdens, or takes something unwillingly from a treaty-maker.” (118). This Hadith indicates that it is not permissible to oppress treaty-makers.

56. Miqdam Bin Yakrib narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I have been given the Qur’an and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say, ‘Hold onto the Qur’an; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited.’ It is not permissible for you to eat the domestic donkey, lions, beasts with fangs, or findings belonging to treaty-makers, unless their owners do not want them.” (119). This Hadith demonstrates the sanctity of the blood, honor and wealth of treaty-makers.

57. Ibn Abi Rawad said, “An army passed by a farm of the People of the Book and allowed their cattle to graze from the farm, except for one man who withheld his sheep. Then the farmer said to him, ‘They have been forgiven because of what you have done.'” (120). This story indicates that trespassing on the property of the People of the Book incurs Allah’s wrath.

58. Juhayna narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You might fight people and conquer them; then they will protect themselves and their children with their money, and make a pact with you, so do not ask for more than that; for it does not befit you.” (121).

59. Khalid Bin Al-Waleed, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I went with the Prophet, peace be upon him, to fight at the battle of Khaybar, and the Jews came and complained that the people had hastened to take their protected property, so the Prophet said, ‘The property of those who have been given covenants is not permissible for you, nor are mules, fanged beast of prey, or birds with a talons.'” (122).

60. Abu Hurairah said, “I heard Abul-Qasim (the Prophet) say, ‘If a man accuses his slave of adultery and the slave is innocent, the man will be flogged on the Day of Resurrection.” (123). Al-Zuhri said, “If somebody accuses a Jew or a Christian of adultery, he must be punished.” (124).

61. Ikrima said, “If I were a ruler, I would punish anyone to slander a Jew or Christian.” (125).

62. Ammar Ibn Yasir narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whosoever unjustly hits his slave will get his retribution in the Day of Resurrection.” (126). All the above Hadiths demonstrate that it is not permissible in Islam to oppress or harm non-Muslim or Muslim slaves.

The following Hadiths show the impermissibility of harming non-Muslims:

63. Urwah Ibn Zubair said, “Hisham Ibn Hakim saw some of the People of the Book standing in the sun and said, ‘Who are they?’ They said, ‘Treaty-makers.’ He then said to Amir Bin Sa’d, ‘I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say, ‘Whosoever tortures people in this world, will be tortured by Allah in the Hereafter. ‘” (127).

64. Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Beware of the supplication of the oppressed as there is no screen between their supplication and Allah.” (129).

65. Abu Hurairah said, “Once a Jew was selling something and was offered a price he was not pleased with. So, he said, ‘No, by Him who gave Moses superiority over all human beings!’ Upon hearing him, an Ansari man got up and slapped him on the face and said, ‘You say: by Him who gave Moses superiority over all human beings, although the Prophet Muhammad is present amongst us!’ The Jew went to the Prophet and said, ‘O Abul-Qasim, I am under the assurance and contract of security, so what right does he have to slap me?’ The Prophet asked the other, ‘Why did you slap him?’ He told him the whole story. The Prophet became angry and said, ‘Don’t give superiority to any prophet amongst Allah’s Prophets, for when the trumpet is blown, everyone on earth and in the heavens will fall unconscious except those whom Allah exempts. The trumpet will be blown a second time and I will be the first to be resurrected, only to see Moses holding Allah’s Throne. I will not know whether the unconsciousness which Moses received on the Day of Tur was sufficient for him, or if he will have gotten up before me. I do not say that there is anybody better than Yunus Bin Matta.” (130).

The following Hadiths emphasize that Muslims must fulfill their covenants:

66. Abdul-Rahman Bin ‘Auf narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “I witnessed The Mutaibeen Alliance as a boy with my uncles and would not like to break it even if I were given red camels.” (131). Ibn Hajar said, “This was an alliance that took place in pre-Islamic days.” (132).

67. Jabir bin Mutim narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There is no alliance in Islam, but Islam only strengthens the alliances established in the pre-Islamic days.”

68. Amr Ibn Shu’ayb narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Fulfill the oaths of your slaves.” (133).

69. Huthaifah Bin Al-Yaman said, “What stopped me and Abu Hussail from participating in the battle of Badr is that we promised some of the people of Quraysh only to go to Madina and not fight with the Prophet. When we told the Prophet, peace be upon him, about that, he said, ‘You are excused; we will fulfill their oath and ask Allah to support us against them.” (134).

70. Al-Miswar Bin Makhramah and Marwan said, “The Prophet, set out at the time of the Treaty of Hudaibiya, and when they proceeded for a distance, he said, ‘Khalid Bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh constituting the front of the army at a place called Al-Ghamim, so take the way on the right.’ By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims till the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, and then he turned back hurriedly to inform Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniya mountainous way, through which one would go to the people of Quraysh. The camel of the Prophet sat down, and people tried their best to make it get up but they failed, so they said, ‘Al-Qaswah (the camel’s name) has become stubborn! Al-Qaswah has become stubborn!’ The Prophet said, ‘Al-Qaswah has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him who stopped the elephant.’ Then he said, ‘By the Name of Him in Whose Hands my soul is, if Quraysh ask me anything respecting the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them.’ The Prophet then rebuked the camel and it got up. The Prophet changed his way till he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaibiya at a well containing a little water which the people used in small amounts; after a short while the people used up all its water and complained to the Prophet of thirst. The Prophet took an arrow out of his arrow-case and ordered them to put the arrow in that well. By Allah, the water started and continued sprouting out till all the people quenched their thirst and returned with satisfaction. While they were still in that state, Budail Bin Warqa Al-Khuzai came with some persons from his tribe (from the area of Tihamah); they were the advisers of the Prophet and would keep no secret from him. Budail said, ‘I left Ka’b Bin Luai and Amir Bin Luai residing at the profuse water of Al-Hudaibiya, and they will wage war against you, and prevent you from visiting the Kaba.’ The Prophet said, ‘We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform Umrah. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people, and if I have victory over those non-belivers, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish; they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause till I die, but Allah will definitely make His Cause victorious.’ Budail said, ‘I will inform them of what you have said.’ So he set off till he reached Quraysh and said, ‘We have come from Muhammad, whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you if you like.’ Some of the fools among Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, ‘Relate what you heard him saying.’ Budail told them what he heard then Urwah Bin Masud got up and said, ‘O people! Aren’t you the sons?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He added, ‘Am I not the father?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you mistrust me?’ They said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Don’t you know that I invited the people of Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me, to help you?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Well, Muhammad has offered you a reasonable proposal; you’d better accept it and allow me to meet him.’ They said, ‘You may meet him.’ So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet told him almost the same as he had told Budail. Then Urwah said, ‘O Muhammad! Won’t you feel any scruple in extirpating your relatives? Have you ever heard of anyone amongst the Arabs extirpating his relatives before you? On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, nobody will aid you, for, by Allah, I do not see with you dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.’ Hearing that, Abu Bakr said, ‘Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet alone?’ Urwah said, ‘Who is that man?’ They said, ‘That is Abu Bakr.’ `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, ‘By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would retort on you.’ Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet’s beard as he was talking while Al-Mughirah Bin Shu`ba was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet, and whenever Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say to Urwah, ‘Remove your hand from the beard of the Prophet.’ Urwah raised his head and asked, ‘Who is that?’ The people said, ‘That is Al-Mughirah Bin Shu`ba.’ Urwah said, ‘O treacherous! Am I not doing my best to prevent the evil consequences of your treachery?’ Before embracing Islam Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people and killed them then took their wealth and came to Medina to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him, ‘As regards your Islam, I accept it, but as for the wealth, I do not take anything of it.’… Urwah returned to his people and said, ‘O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and Negus, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his companions. Urwah added, ‘No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.’ A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, ‘Allow me to go to him.’ They allowed him, and when he approached the Prophet and his Companions, the Prophet said, ‘He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the camels; bring the camels in front of him.’ So, the camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, ‘Glorified be Allah, it is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.’ When he returned to his people, he said, ‘I saw the camels with colored knotted ropes and marked with stabs on their backs. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`ba.’ Another person called Mikraz Bin Hafs got up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said, ‘Here is Mikraz; he is a vicious man.’ Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and, as he was talking, Suhail bin `Amr came and the Prophet said, ‘Now the matter has become easy.’ Suhail said to the Prophet, ‘Please conclude a peace treaty with us.’ So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, ‘Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.” Suhail said, ‘As for ‘the Beneficent,’ by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously.’ The Muslims said, ‘By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.’ The Prophet said, ‘Write: By Your Name, O Allah.’ Then he dictated, ‘This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger, has concluded.’ Suhail said, ‘By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad Bin Abdullah.’ The Prophet said, ‘By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad Bin Abdullah.’ (Al-Zuhri said, “The Prophet accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they demanded as long as it respected the ordinances of Allah.”) The Prophet said to Suhail, ‘On the condition that you allow us to visit the Ka’bah so that we may perform Tawaf around it.’ Suhail said, ‘By Allah, we will not allow you this year, so as not to give chance to the Arabs to say that we have yielded to you, but we will allow you next year.’ So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhail said, ‘We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.’ The Muslims said, ‘Glorified be Allah! How will such a person be returned to the pagans after he has become a Muslim?!’ While they were in this state Abu Jandal Bin Suhail bin `Amr came from the valley of Mecca staggering with his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims. Suhail said, ‘O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you (i.e. you shall return Abu Jandal to me).’ The Prophet said, ‘The peace treaty has not been written yet.’ Suhail said, ‘I will never allow you to keep him.’ The Prophet said, ‘Yes, do.’ He said, ‘I will not.’ Mikraz said, ‘We allow you to keep him.’ Abu Jandal said, ‘O Muslims! Will I be returned to the disbelievers though I have come as a Muslim?! Don’t you see how much I have suffered?!’ Omar Bin Al-Khattab said: I went to the Prophet and said, ‘Aren’t you truly the messenger of Allah?’ The Prophet said, ‘Yes, indeed.’ I said, ‘Isn’t our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be disgraced in our religion?’ He said, ‘I am Allah’s Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.’ I said, ‘Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it?’ He said, ‘Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.’ Omar further said: I went to Abu Bakr and said, ‘O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be disgraced in our religion?’ He said, ‘Indeed, he is Allah’s Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and Allah will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, he is on the right path.’ I said, ‘Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it?’ He said, ‘Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘You will go to Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.’ (Al-Zuhri said, “Umar said, ‘I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.'”) When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah’s Messenger said to his Companions, ‘Go sacrifice your animals and shave your heads.’ By Allah, none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salama hand told her of the people’s attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don’t say a word to anybody till you have sacrificed your animal and called your barber to shave your head.’ So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that. Seeing that, the Companions of the Prophet got up, sacrificed their animals, and started shaving the heads of one another, and they were in such a rush that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came to the Prophet and Allah revealed the following Divine Verses: ‘O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, test their faith.’ (60:10). Omar then divorced two wives of his who were non-Muslims. Later on Muawiyah Bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan Bin Umaiyyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Medina, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from Quraysh, came to him. The infidels sent in his pursuit two men who said to the Prophet, ‘Abide by the promise you gave us.’ So the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out of the city till they reached Thul-Hulaifah, where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, ‘By Allah, I see you have a fine sword.’ The other drew it out and said, ‘By Allah, it is very fine and I have used it many times.’ Abu Basir said, ‘Let me have a look at it.’ When the other gave it to him, he struck him with it and killed him, and his companion ran away till he reached Medinah and entered the Mosque running. When Allah’s Messenger saw him he said, ‘This man appears to have been frightened.’ When he reached the Prophet he said, ‘My companion has been murdered and I was nearly murdered too.’ Abu Basir came and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by your returning me to them, but Allah has saved me from them.’ The Prophet said, ‘Woe to his mother! What excellent war kindler he would be, if he only had supporters.’ When Abu Basir heard that he understood that the Prophet would return him to them again, so he set off till he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal Bin Suhail escaped from them and joined Abu Basir. Whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam, he would follow Abu Basir till they formed a strong group. Whenever they heard about a caravan of Quraysh heading towards Syria, they attacked it, killed everyone in it, and took their belongings. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the Sake of Allah to send for Abu Basir and his companions, promising that whoever amongst them came to the Prophet would be secure. So the Prophet sent for them and Allah revealed the following Verses, ‘And it is He Who withheld their hands from you and your hands From them in Mecca, after He made you the victorious over them. And Allah sees all that you do. It is them who disbelieved and prevented you from reaching the Sacred Mosque while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. Were it not for believing men and women whom you did not know you might trample – and there would befall you because of them dishonor without your knowledge – [you would have been permitted to enter Mecca]. [This was so] that Allah would allow to enter into His Mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart, We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with a painful torment. When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts the chauvinism of the [pre-Islamic] Days of Ignorance.” (48: 24-26). Their pride and haughtiness was what made them refuse to write in the treaty that Muhammad was the Messenger of Allah and that Allah is the most Beneficent and Most Merciful; this is also what made them prevent the Muslims from visiting the Ka’bah.

71. Salim Bin Amir said, “Mu’awiyah signed a treaty with the Romans, but set out to fight them since the treaty was coming to an end. Then Amr Bin Absa came and said, “Fulfillment rather than treachery… I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say, ‘He who signs a treaty between him and people must not break it until it ends, or throw it back at them (break it if they initiated treachery).’ Mu’awiyah retreated after hearing that.” (138).

72. Sa’d Bin Abi Waqqas said, “When the Prophet, peace be upon him, came to Madinah, the tribe of Juhaynah said to him, ‘You are going to live amongst us, so let’s make an oath whereby we can trust you and you can trust us in return.’ He said, ‘Let’s make an oath.’ Yet they didn’t accept Islam.” (139).

73. Suraqah said, “I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, in [a place named] Jaranah and some of Ansar hit me on the head as I was passing. I complained to the Prophet, who had given me an oath of safety a while ago. He then said, ‘Yes, today is the day of fulfillment, righteousness and truth.'” (140).

74. Abdullah Ibn Omar said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, came to us and said, ‘O immigrants, you may be afflicted by five things; God forbid that you should live to see them. If fornication should become widespread, you should realize that this has never happened without new diseases which people’s forefathers never suffered from befalling the people. If people should begin to cheat in weighing out goods, you should realize that this has never happened without drought and famine befalling the people, and their rulers oppressing them. If people should withhold alms, you should realize that this has never happened without the rain being stopped from falling; and were it not for the animals’ sake, it would never rain again. If people should break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, you should realize that this has never happened without Allah sending an enemy against them to take some of their possessions by force. If the leaders do not govern according to the Book of Allah, you should realize that this has never happened without Allah making them fight one another.'” (141).

75. Na‘im said, “When he read Musaylimah’s letter, I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say to the two messengers who delivered the letter, ‘What do you say?’ They said, ‘Just as he said.’ He replied, ‘If Allah didn’t forbid Prophets from killing, I would have stricken your necks [with my sword].'” (142). This Hadith shows that it is impermissible to harm and assault ambassadors and messengers.

76. Abu Rafi’ said, “Quraysh sent a letter about me – asking to return the messenger they sent to the Prophet, peace be upon him. The love of Islam had been placed in my heart so I said to the Prophet, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I swear I will never go back to them.’ He said, ‘I do not break covenants nor withhold messengers. Go back to them. If your heart still feels the way it does now when you reach them, you may return to us.’ I went back to them, and then returned to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.” (146).

77. Bushair bin Yasar said, “Abdullah Bin Sahl and Muhayyisah Bin Mas’ud, who were both Ansar belonging to the tribe of Banu Haritha, set out to Khaibar during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him. There was peace during those days and this place was inhabited by the Jews. They parted and Abdullah Bin Sahl was killed. Muhayyisah found his dead body and buried him then returned to Medinah. Abdur-Rahman Bin Sahl, Muhayyisah and Huwayyisah told the Prophet about Abdullah’s murder. He said to them, ‘Take fifty oaths and you will be entitled to the blood money of your companion.’ They said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we neither saw this murder nor were we present there.’ Thereupon the Prophet said, ‘Then the Jews will exonerate themselves by taking fifty oaths.’ They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how can we accept the oath of disbelieving people?’ So Allah’s Messenger paid the blood money himself.” (149). This Hadith emphasizes that the Prophet, peace be upon him, didn’t accuse the Jews of a murder that no one witnessed since they were treaty-makers.

78. Abdullah Bin Al-As narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Four are the qualities which, when found in a person, make him a sheer hypocrite, and one who possesses one of them, possesses one characteristic of hypocrisy until he abandons it. These are: when he is entrusted with something, he betrays trust; when he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he acts treacherously; and when he argues, he behaves in a very imprudent, insulting manner.” (152). Ibn Hajar said, “Betrayal is forbidden, whether the treaty is with a Muslim or a treaty-maker.” (153).

79. Anas narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon, him said, ”Every betrayer will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection.” One of the two sub narrators said that the flag would be fixed, and the other said that it would be shown on the Day of Resurrection, so that the betrayer might be recognized by it.” (155).

80. Abu Sa’id narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Everyone who breaks a covenant will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection. It will be raised higher according to the nature of his breach. Behold, there will be no greater sin with respect to breaking the covenant than that of a ruler who breaks his covenant with the Muslim masses.” (156). Al-Nawawi said, “These Hadiths emphasize the prohibition of breaking treaties and covenants, especially by rulers, because their treachery can harm lots of people.” (157).

81. Jabir narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “No idolater shall enter our mosque after this year, except for the people with covenants and their servants.” (158).

82. Asim ibn ‘Ubayd narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever breaks a covenant and dies as a covenant breaker will come on the Day of Resurrection with no excuse.” (159).

83. Aisha said, “Since my earliest memories, my parent always worshipped according to the true faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Messenger visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant. When he reached a place called Bark Al-Ghimad, he met Ibn Ad-Daghna, the chief of the Qara tribe, who asked Abu Bakr, ‘Where are you going?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘My people have driven me out of my homeland and I want to travel and worship my Lord.’ Ibn Ad- Daghna said, ‘A man like you will not leave nor be driven out as you help the poor earn their living, keep good ties with your kith and kin, help the needy, provide guests with food and shelter, and help people during their troubles. I am your protector. So, go back and worship your Lord at your home.’ Ibn Ad-Daghna went along with Abu Bakr and took him to the chiefs of Quraysh saying to them, ‘A man like Abu Bakr will not go out, nor will he be turned out. Do you turn out a man who helps the poor earn their living, keeps good relations with kith and kin, helps the needy, provides guests with food and shelter, and helps the people during their troubles?’ So, Quraysh allowed Ibn Ad-Daghna’s guarantee of protection and told Abu Bakr that he was secure, and said to Ibn Ad-Daghna, ‘Advise Abu Bakr to worship his Lord in his house, to pray and read what he likes, not to bother us and not to do these things publicly, for we fear that our sons and women may follow him.’ Ibn Ad-Daghna told Abu Bakr of all that, so Abu Bakr continued worshipping his Lord in his house and did not pray or recite Qur’an aloud except in his house. Later on, Abu Bakr wished to build a mosque in the courtyard of his house. He fulfilled this wish and started praying and reciting Qur’an there publicly. The women and the children of the pagans started gathering around him and looking at him in amazement. Abu Bakr was a softhearted person and could not help but weeping while reciting Qur’an. This horrified the pagan chiefs of Quraysh. They sent for Ibn Ad-Daghna and when he came, they said, ‘We have given Abu Bakr protection on condition that he worships his Lord in his house, but he has transgressed this condition and has built a mosque in the courtyard of his house and offered his prayer and recited Qur’an in public. We are afraid lest he mislead our women and children. So, go to him and tell him that if he wishes he can worship his Lord in his house only, and if not, then tell him to return your pledge of protection as we do not like to betray you by revoking your pledge, nor can we tolerate Abu Bakr’s public declaration of Islam. Ibn Ad-Daghna came to Abu Bakr and said, ‘You know the conditions on which I gave you protection, so you should either abide by those conditions or revoke my protection, as I do not like to hear the Arabs saying that Ibn Ad-Daghna gave the pledge of protection to a person and his people did not respect it.’ Abu Bakr said, ‘I revoke your pledge of protection and am satisfied with Allah’s protection.'” (168). This story shows that it is permissible to accept non-Muslims’ protection.

84. Du Mekmar narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “You will make an allegiance with the Byzantines, then you and they will fight a common enemy, and you will be victorious, take spoils, and be safe. You will then return to a meadow and one of the Christians will raise the cross and say: ‘The cross has conquered.’ One of the Muslims will become angry and smash it, and the Byzantines will act treacherously and prepare for battle.” (169). This Hadith shows that it is permissible to have an allegiance with non-Muslims.

85. Anas bin Malik said, “Abu Talha was the one among the Ansar of Medina who owned the most property. Among the property he valued most was a garden opposite the mosque. The Prophet, peace be upon him, often visited the garden and drank of its sweet water. When this verse was revealed: ‘You will never attain righteousness till you give freely of what you love,’ Abu Talha went to the Prophet and said, ‘Allah says in His Book that you will never attain righteousness till you give freely of what you love, and the dearest of my property my garden, so I give it as charity and hope that Allah rewards me for it; so spend it, O Messenger of Allah, on whatever purpose you deem it proper. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘That is a prosperous property! I have heard what you have said, but I think you should spend it on your nearest relatives.’ So Abu Talha distributed it his relatives.” This Hadith shows that it is permissible to pay alms non-Muslims, especially if they are relatives.

The following Hadiths show the permissibility of arbitrating between the People of the Book:

86. Al-Ash’ath said, “A Jew and I shared some land and he denied me my right, so I took him to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he said to me, ‘Do you have any evidence?’ I said, ‘No.’ He then said to the Jew, ‘Swear an oath.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, he will swear an oath and go off with my property,’ so Allah revealed, ‘Those who barter for a small price Allah’s covenant and their oaths.'” (190).

87. Abdullah Ibn Abbas said, “When the following verse was revealed, ‘If they do come to thee, either judge between them, or decline to interfere. If thou judge between them, do so in equity,’ the Banu Al-Nadir Jews used to pay half blood money if they killed anyone from Banu Qurayzah. When Banu Qurayzah killed anyone from Banu Al-Nadir, they would pay full blood money. So the Prophet, peace be upon him, made it equal between them.”

The following verses and Hadiths show the permissibility of accepting Non-Muslims’ testimony:

88. Allah said, “O you who believe, testimony [should be taken] among you when death approaches one of you at the time of bequest – [that of] two just men from among you or two others from outside if you are traveling through the land and the calamity of death should strike you. Detain them after the prayer and let them both swear by Allah if you doubt [their testimony, saying], ‘We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony of Allah. Indeed, we would then be of the sinful.’ But if it is found that those two were guilty of perjury, let two others stand in their place [who are] foremost [in claim] from those who have a lawful right. And let them swear by Allah, ‘Our testimony is truer than their testimony, and we have not transgressed. Indeed, we would then be of the wrongdoers.’ That is more likely that they will give testimony according to its [true] objective, or [at least] they would fear that [other] oaths might be taken after their oaths. Fear Allah and listen. Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people.” [Al-Maeda: 106-108]. Ibn ‘Abbas these verses were revealed concerning the following story: “A man from Banu Sahm went out with Tamim Al-Dari and Adi Ibn Badda’. The man of Banu Sahm died in a land where no Muslim was present. When they returned with his inheritance, his heirs did not find a silver cup with lines of gold in his property. The Prophet, peace be upon him, administered on oath to them. The cup was then found with some people in Mecca. They said, ‘We bought it from Tamim and Adi.’ Then two men from the heirs of the man from Banu Sahm got up and swore saying, ‘Our testimony is more reliable than their testimony. They said that the cup belonged to their man.'” (192). Ibn Hajar said, “It was understood from this Hadith that it is permissible to accept non-Muslims’ testimony.” (193).

89. Yahya said, “Shurayh accepted the testimony of the people of the book.”(194).

To Accept their Intercession in some Cases:

• Mohammed bin Jubair narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said about the prisoners of Badr, “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake.” (199) This Hadith indicates that Muslims can accept the intercession of non-believers, for Mut’im bin Udai protected the Prophet, peace be upon him, once and that is why the Prophet, peace be upon him, wanted to pay him back.

Greeting non-Muslims and shaking their Hands:

• Abu Abdullah Asqallaani said that he saw Ibn Muhaireez shake hands with a Christian in a mosque in Damascus (200).

• Umaamah al-Bahili used to greet whoever he met, yet a Jew once hid behind a cylinder so that he could greet Abu Umaamah first, and then Umaamah said to him, “Woe to you, O Jew What made you do what you did?” He said, “I felt that greeting people first is a preferable deed, after seeing you greet people all the time, ” Abu Umaamah said, “Woe I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, “Allah made the greetings of peace a salute to our nation and a safety for Dhimmis (treaty-makers)”(201).

• Abdul Razak said that shaking hands with Jews and Christians is allowed, since Sufian al-Thaori and Imran agreed that there is nothing wrong with greeting and shaking hands with Jews and Christians. (202)

• Usama bin Zaid said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, rode a donkey having a saddle with a Fadakiyya velvet covering. He mounted me behind him and went to visit Saad bin Ubada, and that had been before the battle of Badr. The Prophet proceeded till he passed by a gathering in which Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul was present, and that had been before Abdullah embraced Islam. The gathering comprised of Muslims, non-Muslims and Jews, then the Prophet, peace be upon him greeted them” (203).

• Abu Othman Nahdi said, “Abu Musa greeted Dehqan in the message he sent him, then some said, “why do you greet a non-believer?’ He said, “He greeted me first so I replied” (204).

• Alqamah said, “Abu Musa greeted Dehqan in order to prove that it is acceptable to greet non-Muslims.”(205)

• Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back a Jew, a Christian, or a Magian, for Allah said, ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better than it or return it. Allah takes count of all things.'” ((206

• Abdullah ibn Abbas said, “The prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Caesar and invited him to Islam and sent him a letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi whom the prophet ordered to hand over the letter to the Governor of Busra who would forward it to Caesar. The Prophet said in the letter, ” “In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam, embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the peasants. “Say: O People of the Scripture! Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him)”(207).

• Uqbah ibn Aamir al-Juhani greeted a man he passed by, the man greeted him back. Then Uqbah’s Servant said, “He is a Christian!”, Uqbah followed the man and said to him, “Allah’s mercy and blessings are bestowed upon the faithful, but may Allah prolong your life and bless your children.”(208)

• Ibn Abbas said, “I would even greet back Pharaoh, had he greeted me.” (209)

• Alqamah said, “I came back from Hiraa with Abdullah and a couple of non-believers, and after he entered Kufa and was about to part away from them, Abdulllah greeted them. I said, ‘Why do you greet non-believers?’ He said, ‘They were our companions in this journey, thus we have to greet them” (210).

• Umar’s servant said, “When we came back from Sham with Omar bin Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, Al-Dehghan came to him and said,’ O Commander of the Faithful, I have made you food; can you honor me by coming to the church?’ He said, ‘I cannot enter these Churches that have such images'” (211)

• Ibn Abbas greeted a treaty-maker first, and then some people said, “You greeted a treaty-maker first?” He said, ‘Allah is peace” (212).

• Ibrahim said, “It is permissible to greet a non-believer first” (213).

• Abu Burda said, “A man of the non-believers wrote a letter to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and greeted him, then the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, greeted him back” (214).

• Mujahid said, “Greet the people of the book by saying, ‘peace be upon those who follow guidance’ (215).

• Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back whoever greets you, for Allah said, ”When you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better than it or return it. Allah takes count of all things.'” [women: 86] (216).

• Abu Basra narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “We are about to approach Jews, so do not greet them first, and if they greet you then say, ‘And upon you too'” (217).

• Anas said, “We were asked to greet back the people of the book with ‘And upon you too'” (218).

• Awn bin Abdullah said, “Muhammad ibn Ka’b asked Omar bin Abdul Aziz about greeting treaty-makers. He said, “greet them and greet them back” for Allah said,” Then bear with them (O Muhammad) and say: Peace. But they will come to know” (219).

• Ibn Ajlan said, “Abdullah and Abu Darda used to greet non-believers first.” (220)

• Muammar said, “I said to Zuhri, ‘Are we allowed to greet non-believers?’ He said, ‘There is nothing wrong with it'”(221)

• Anas narrated that the Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to him, “The People of the Book offer us salutations. How should we respond?” Thereupon he said, ‘ Say: and upon you too'”. (222)

• Al-Nawawi said, “scholars differed in the verdict of greeting non-believers first, but there is a consensus among scholars that it is impermissible to greet non-believers first, yet it is an obligation to greet them back by saying, ‘And upon you too’, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘say: and upon you too’. Also, some Scholars said that it is permissible to greet non-believers first, since Ibn Abbas, Abu Umaamah, and IbnAbiMakeaz, said that it is permissible to do so. Some Scholars agreed that it is not preferable and not forbidden to greet non-Muslims first. (223).

Asking non-Believers’ permission:

• Abdul Rahman bin Yazid used to ask for non-believers’ permission before entering their room.(224)

• Said bin Jubair said, “You must ask for non-believers’ permission before entering their place.”(225)

• Abu Munabeh said, “Hassan said that Muslims must ask for non-Muslims’ permission before entering their place.” (226).

Honoring non-Muslims:

• Hassan ibnAbiYahya al-Kindi said, “We were sitting with Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, when a master from Najran came to visit Ali, and Ali honored him. A man said, “Why do you honor a Christian, O Commander of the Faithful?” He said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to honor them when they visited him.”(227)

Giving non-Muslims names by Muslim:

• Abu Zuhari, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, called Safwan bin Umaya when he came on a horse, “Come down Abu Wahab.”(228).

• Al-frafsah al-Hanafi said that Omar Ibn al Khattab called a Christian ‘Abu Hassan’ (229).

• Qatada narrated that a Christian said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, I had converted to Islam. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘Abu al-Harith!’. He said, “I had converted to Islam before you!” He said, ‘You lied, three traits came between you and Islam (prevented you from converting), drinking alcohol, eating pork, and you claiming Allah has a son.”(230).

Eating the slaughters of the people of the book:

Islam assured Muslims that it is permissible to eat the food and the slaughters of the people of the book, as Allah said, “This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.” [Al-Maeda: 5]. The Hadiths that indicate the permissibility of eating the slaughters of the people of the book are as follows:

• Ibn Abbas said, “Allah said, ‘The food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them'”. (231)

• Muammar said that az-Zuhari stressed that it is permissible to eat Christians’ slaughters.” (232).

• Ibrahim said, “There is nothing wrong with eating Christians’ slaughters.” (233).

• Gatifibn al-Harith said, “Some Muslims asked Umar about eating the slaughters of some Jews who recite the Torah, but do not believe in resurrection. Umar said, “They are a sect from the people of the book, therefor eating their slaughters is permissible.”(234)

• Qais bin Sakan said that Abdullah said, “Do not eat the cheese made by other than Muslims or the people of the book.” (235)

• Swedan, the servant of Salman said, “We found a basket when we were on a conquest in Madaen. And then Salman said, “Open it, if you find money, pay it back to its owners, and eat the food you find”, He said, “We opened it and found loaves of bread and cheese, and then Salman showed us how to cut loves since this is the first time Arabs saw loaves, and said, “Eat, in the name of Allah.” (236)

• Hasan and IbnSirin said that there is nothing wrong with eating the food of the people of the book. (237).

• Abu Wael Ibrahim said, “Eating the slaughters of the people of the book is permissible, as long as they mention the name of Allah before slaughtering them. And it is also permissible to eat the food of other than the people of the book except for meats.”(238).

Selling and buying from the people of the book:
Islam allowed Muslims to sell their goods to the people of the book and buy from them in the following Hadiths:

• Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, made an agreement with Khyber Jews and allowed them to plant the land under the condition of splitting goods with Muslims.”(239).

• Abdullah Alhozna said, “I said to Belal bin Rabah, the muezzin (the one who calls for prayer) of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘O Bilal! Tell me about how the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, spent his money.’ He said, ‘He didn’t own anything. And if an impoverished Muslim came by to visit him, he would ask me to borrow money in order to clothe and feed him. However, I once encountered a non-Muslim who asked me to borrow money from no one other than him, so I did. And while I was about to call for prayer, the non-Muslim came by and said to me in an aggressive tone ‘O black man, I can belittle you, enslave you, and make you a shepherded, just like you used to be, if you don’t pay back your debt.’ I felt sad, and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came, “O Messenger of Allah, the non-Muslim whom I borrowed money from told me so and so, and you don’t have any money to pay him back, nor do I, hence I will stay and work with some of the people who had converted to Islam, until the messenger, peace be upon him, earns the money to pay back my debt”. I went back to my house, and as dawn broke, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, summoned me and gave me some of the gifts that were just sent to him by one of the leaders, so that I can pay my debt. Thus I paid back my debt.”(240)

• Al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih (in the book of hiring non-Muslims when necessary), that Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Prophet and Abu Bakr employed a non-Muslim from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail and the tribe of Bani ‘Abu bin `Adi as a guide. He was an expert guide and he broke the oath contract which he had to abide by with the tribe of Al-Asi bin Wail and he was on the religion of Quraish pagans. The Prophet and Abu Bakr had confidence in him and gave him their riding camels and told him to bring them to the Cave of Thaur after three days. So, he brought them their two riding camels after three days and both of them (The Prophet and Abu Bakr) set out accompanied by Amir bin Fuhaira and the Dili guide who guided them below Mecca along the road leading to the sea-shore.”

• Marwan Ibn al-Hakam and Maisoor bin Khurma said, ” The Prophet, peace be upon him, set out in the company of more than one thousand of his companions in the year of Al-Hudaibiya, and when he reached Dhul-Hulaifa, he garlanded his sacrificing animal, assumed the state of Ihram for `Umra from that place, and sent a spy from Khuzi’a tribe.”(243). IbnTaymiyah said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, always listened to the advice of the Muslim and non-Muslim members of Khuzaa tribe, as al-Bukahri narrated in his Sahih. Also, Abu Talib used to support and protect the Prophet, peace be upon him, which indicates that some people of the book are trustworthy, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75] (244). Therefore, it is permissible to hire some trustworthy non-Muslims, borrow money from them, take their advice, entrust them, and learn their science. “(245). Al-Khattabi said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a spy from Khuzaa, entrusted them, and took the advice of Muslim and non-Muslim members of Khuzaa tribe, since they were trustworthy.”(246).

• Ali bin AbiTalib, May Allah be pleased with him, said, “I was very hungry, so I left the house of the Prophet, peace be upon him, seeking food since I couldn’t find anything to eat in the house of the Prophet, peace upon him. I stopped by a wealthy Jew who was irrigating his field. He said to me, “O Nomad? I will pay you a date for each bucket you lift? I said, “Yes”, so I worked for him, and he gave me a date for each bucket I lifted, until my palm was filled with dates, and then I ate them and drank some water.”(247).

• Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, narrated, that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, died and his armor was mortgaged to a Jew for thirty Sa’ (measures) of barley.”(248)

• Aisha, May Allah be pleased with her, narrated, that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, purchased food grains from a Jew on credit and mortgaged his iron armor to him.”(249)

• IbnHajar said, “This Hadith indicates that it is permissible to deal and interact with non-Muslims, ask for a loan from them, and mortgage goods. (250) And said, “scholars believe that the Prophet mortgaged his armor to a Jew rather than a Muslim, in order to demonstrate the permissibility of dealing with non-Muslims.” (251)

• Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Salam said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, borrowed dates form a Jew called ‘Yamin'” (252).

• Ali, May Allah be pleased be with him, said, “I got an old she-camel as my share from the spoils, and the Prophet had given me another from Al- Khumus. And when I intended to marry Fatima (The daughter of the Prophet), I arranged that a goldsmith from the tribe of BaniQainuqa’ would accompany me in order to bring Idhkhir and then sell it to the goldsmiths and use its price for my marriage banquet.(253)

• Muhammad bin Abi Al-Mujalid said, “Abu Burda and Abdullah bin Shaddad, sent me to AbdurRahman bin Abza, and Abdullah bin AbiAufa, to ask them about the companions. They said, “We used to get war spoils while we were with Allah’s Messenger, and when the non-believers of Sham came to us we used to pay them in advance for wheat, barley, and oil to be delivered within a fixed period.” I asked them, “Did the peasants own standing crops or not?” They replied, “We never asked them about it.”(254)(255)

• Sahl bin Saad said, “Ali bin AbiTalib entered upon Fatimah while Hasan and Husain were crying. He asked, ‘Why are they crying?’ She replied, ‘Due to hunger’. Ali went out and found a dinar in the market. He then came to Fatima and told her about it. She said, ‘Go to such and such, a Jew and get some flour for us’. He came to the Jew and purchased flour from him. He said, ‘Are you the son-in-law of him who believes that he is the Prophet of Allah’. He said, ‘Yes’. The Jew said, ‘Have your dinar with you and you will get the flour’. Ali then went out and came to Fatima. He told her about the matter. She then said, ‘Go to such and such, a butcher and get some meat for us for a dirham’. Ali went out and pawned the dinar for a dirham with him and got the meat, and brought it. She then kneaded the flour, put the utensil on fire and baked the bread. She sent for her father. He came to them. And she said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I will tell you about all what happened. If you think it is lawful for us, we shall eat it and you will eat with us. She said, ‘The matter is such and such’. He said, ‘Eat in the name of Allah’. So they ate it. While they were (eating) at their place, a boy cried adjuring in the name of Allah and Islam, He was searching for the dinar. The Messenger of Allah, commanded him to come and he was called in. He asked him about the Dinar. The boy replied, ‘ I lost it somewhere in the market.’ The Prophet said, ‘Ali, go to the butcher and tell him that the Messenger of Allah has asks you to send the dinar to him and one dirham of yours will be due on me’. The butcher returned it and the Messenger of Allah handed it to the boy”.

• Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Sahih (the book of sales), that Abdul Rahman bin AbiBakr, May Allah be pleased with him said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a tall non-Muslim with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, “Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?” The man replied, “They are for sale.” The Prophet bought one sheep from him. (257). IbnBattaal said that al-Bukhari enlisted this Hadith in the book of sales to indicate that buying and selling from non-Muslims is permissible. (258)

• Umm Salamah said that Abu Bakr embarked on a business journey to Basra, one year before the death of the Prophet, peace be upon him. (259)

• Al-Thaori said, “A Muslim can pray in the clothes he bought or borrowed from a non-Muslim without having to wash it.”(260)

• Abdul Razak said, “I heard Al-Thaori say, ‘ A Muslim can pray in the clothes he bought or borrowed from a Christian, a Jew, or a Magian, as long as they are clean.”(261).

• Umaya bin Safwan bin Umaya said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, borrowed coats of mail from Safwan bin Umaya on the day of the battle of Hunayn. Safwan asked, ‘Are you taking them by force Muhammad?’ He replied, ‘No, it is a loan with a guarantee of their return'”. (262).

• Jabir bin Abdullah said, “When my father died he owed a Jew thirty Awsuq (of dates). I requested him to give me respite for repaying but he refused. I asked the Prophet to intercede with the Jew. The Prophet went to the Jew and asked him to accept the fruits of my trees in place of the debt but the Jew refused. The Prophet entered the garden of the date-palms, wandered among the trees and ordered me (saying), “Pluck (the fruits) and give him his due.” So, I plucked the fruits for him after the departure of the Prophet and gave him his thirty Awsuq, and still had seventeen Awsuq extra for myself. Jabir said, ‘I went to the Prophet to inform him of what had happened, but found him praying the Asr prayer. After the prayer I told him about the extra fruits which remained. The Prophet told me to inform (Umar) Ibn Al-Khattab about it. When I went to Umar and told him about it, Umar said, “When the Prophet walked in your garden, I was sure that Allah would definitely bless it.”
(263).

• Al-Bukhari narrated in the book of agency (2301), that Abdul Rahman bin Auf said, “I got an agreement written between me and Umaiya bin Khalaf that Umaiya would look after my property (or family) in Mecca and I would look after his in Medina. When I mentioned the word ‘Ar-Rahman’ in the documents, Umaiya said, “I do not know ‘Ar-Rahman.’ Write down to me your name, (with which you called yourself) in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.” So, I wrote my name ‘Abdu Amr’. On the day (of the battle) of Badr, when all the people went to sleep, I went up the hill to protect him. Bilal saw Umaiya and went to a gathering of Ansar and said, “Here is Umaiya bin Khalaf! Woe to me if he escapes!” So, a group of Ansar went out with Bilal to follow us (Abdur-Rahman and Umaiya). Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umaiya’s son for them to keep them busy but the Ansar killed the son and insisted on following us. Umaiya was a fat man, and when they approached us, I told him to kneel down, and he knelt, and I laid myself on him to protect him, but the Ansar killed him by passing their swords underneath me, and one of them injured my foot with his sword. The sub narrator said, “Abdul Rahman used to show us the trace of the wound on the back of his foot.”IbnHajar said, “Abdul Rahman bin Auf, a Muslim, delegated the non-Muslim Umaya bin Khalaf, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not disapprove of what he did.” Ibn al-Mundhir said, “A Muslim is allowed to delegate a non-Muslim.” (264-265).

• Hasan emphasized that there is nothing wrong with establishing business with a trustworthy Jew or a Christian, as long as the Muslim himself wishes for it. (266)

• Eyas bin Muawiya said, “There is nothing wrong with establishing business with a trustworthy Jew or a Christian, as long as the Muslim looks after his money.”(267)

• Hammad said that there is nothing wrong with buying goods from a treaty-maker. (268)

Interceding for a non-Muslim:

• Khalid al-Hizza said, “Omar bin Abdul Aziz said that Muslims are allowed to Intercede for Jews.”(269)

• Al-Thaori said, “Muslims are allowed to Intercede for all people, including Jews, Christians, and Magi.” (270).

Learning their science and language:

• Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, agreed to free some of the prisoners of Badr, if they taught the children of Ansar how to write.”(271)

• ZaidibnThabit said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered me (to learn the writing of the Jews), so I learnt for him the writing of the Jews. He said, ‘I swear by Allah, I do not trust Jews in respect of writing for me. So I learnt it, and only a fortnight passed that I mastered it. I would write for him when he wrote (to them), and read to him when something was written to him.” (272)

• Jaddama al-Asadya said, “I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him say, ”I intended to prohibit ghilah but I remembered that Greeks and Persians do that without it causing any injury to their children.'” (273). Malik said, “Ghailah means that a man has intercourse with women while she is breastfeeding a child.”

Seeking Medication from a non-Muslim:

• Saad said, “I suffered from an illness, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, came to visit me. He put his hands between my nipples and I felt its coolness at my heart. He said, ‘You are a man suffering from a heart sickness. Go to al-HarithibnKaladah, brother of Thaqif. He is a man who gives medical treatment. He should take seven ajwah dates of Medina and grind them with their kernels, and then put them into your mouth.” (274)

• Zaynab Abdullah Abdullah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, ‘spells, charms and love-potions are polytheism’. I asked, ‘Why do you say this? I swear by Allah, when my eye was discharging I used to go to so-and-so, the Jew, who applied a spell to me. When he applied the spell to me, it calmed down’. Abdullah said, ‘That was just the work of the Devil who was picking it with his hand, and when he uttered the spell on it, he desisted. All you need to do is to say as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say, ‘Remove the harm, O Lord of men, and heal. Thou art the Healer. There is no remedy but Thine which leaves no disease behind.” (275 )

The Rights of non-Muslim neighbors:

• Mujahid narrated: “Abdullah bin Amr had a sheep slaughtered for his family, so when he came he said, ‘Have you given some to our neighbor, the Jew? Have you given some to our neighbor, the Jew? (He said it twice), for I heard the Messenger of Allah say, ‘Gabriel continued to advise me about (treating) the neighbors so (kindly and politely), that I thought he would order me (from Allah) to make them heirs.”(276)

• Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr said, “I was once in the land of Nadir, which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah and Zubair. And Zubair went with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and we had a Jew neighbor who cooked a savory sheep, while I was pregnant with my daughter Khadija. I went to his wife and asked her to give me fire (means to set a fire); when I didn’t even need them, only so that she could offer me some food, but she didn’t, I did that thrice, but my attempts were futile. So I went home and cried and prayed to Allah. The Jewish man came and said to his wife, ‘Did anybody visit you today?’ She said, ‘No one except the Arabian woman who came seeking fire’. He said, ‘I will never touch the food unless you send her some of it’. So his wife sent me some of the food and I ate it.” (277)

• Abu Thalabah al-khushani said that he asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “We live in the neighborhood of the People of the Book, and they cook in their pots (the flesh of) swine and drink wine in their vessels. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘If you find any other pots, then eat in them and drink. But if you do not find any others, then wash them with water and eat and drink (In them)’. (278).

• Abu Thalabah said, “I said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘We are living in a land ruled by the people of the Scripture; can we eat our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of game and I hunt the game with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and with my trained hound. Then what is lawful for me to eat?” He said, “As for what you have mentioned about the people of the Scripture, if you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with your bow after mentioning Allah’s Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your trained hound after mentioning Allah’s Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it.”

Visiting non-Muslim Patients:

• Anas said, “A young Jew became ill, so the Prophet went to visit him. He sat down by his head and said to him, ‘Accept Islam. He looked at his father who was beside him near his head, and his father said, ‘Obey Abu al-Qasim’. So he accepted Islam, and then the Prophet stood up and said, ‘Praise be to Allah Who has saved him through me from Hell.” (279)

• Ertah bin Munkadir said that Abu Darda used to visit his Jewish neighbor (280).

Praying for their Guidance:

• Abu Burdah said, “Jews used to try to sneezes in the presence of the Prophet, peace be upon him, hoping that he would say to them, “May Allah has mercy on you!” but he would say instead, ‘May Allah guide you and grant you well-being.'” (281)This Hadith indicates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, was keen on praying for non-Muslims for guidance.

• Ibrahim said, “A Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘Pray for me’. The Prophet said, ‘May Allah bless your wealth and children, make your body healthy, and prolong your life.'”(282)

• Ibrahim said, “There is nothing wrong with praying for Jews and Christians’ guidance.”(283)

• Qatada said, “a Jew milked the Prophet’s camel, peace be upon him, and the Prophet prayed for him and said, ‘Allah make him more beautiful”, thus his hair became blacker”. (284)

Mingling with the people of the book, to call them to Islam, and buy goods from them:

There are numerous Hadith that indicate that Muslims used to mingle and buy from the people of the book, or other non-Muslims, such as:

• Said bin Jubair said, “A Jew from Hira asked me which one of the two periods The Prophet Moses completed. I said, “I don’t know, (but wait) till I see the most learned Arab and inquire him about it.” So, I went to Ibn Abbas and asked him. He replied, “Moses completed the longer and better period.” Ibn Abbas added, “No doubt, an apostle of Allah always does what he says.”(285)

• Ikrimah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to IbnSuriya, “I remind you by Allah Who saved you from the people of Pharaoh, made you cover the sea, gave you the shade of clouds, sent down to you manna and quails, sent down Torah to Moses, do you find stoning (for adultery) in your Book?’ He said, ‘You have reminded me by the Great. It is not possible for me to belive you. He then transmitted the rest of the tradition. (286)

• Usama bin Zaid said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, rode over a donkey with a saddle underneath which there was a thick soft Fadakiya velvet sheet. Usama bin Zaid was his companion rider, and he was going to pay a visit to Saad bin Ubada (who was sick) at the house of Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj, and this incident happened before the battle of Badr. The Prophet passed by a gathering in which there were Muslims, non-Muslims, and Jews, and among them there was Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, and Abdullah bin Rawaha. When a cloud of dust raised by the animal covered that gathering, Abdullah bin Ubai covered his nose with his sheet and said to the Prophet, “Don’t cover us with dust.” The Prophet greeted them and then stopped, dismounted and invited them to embrace Islam, and recited to them the Holy Qur’an. Abdullah bin Ubai’ bin Salul said, “O man! There is nothing better than what you say, if what you say is the truth. So do not trouble us in our gatherings. Go back to your mount (or house,) and if anyone of us comes to you, tell (your tales) to him.” On that Abdullah bin Rawaha said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Come to us and bring it(what you want to say) in our gatherings, for we love that.” So the Muslims, the pagans and the Jews started quarreling till they were about to fight and clash with one another. The Prophet kept on quieting them (till they all became quiet). He then rode his animal, and proceeded till he entered upon Saad bin Ubada, he said, “O Saad, didn’t you hear what Abu Habbab said? (He meant Abdullah bin Ubai). He said so-and-so.” Saad bin ‘Ubada said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Excuse and forgive him, for by Allah, Allah has given you what He has given you. The people of this town decided to crown him (as their chief) and make him their king. But when Allah prevented that with the Truth which He had given you, it choked him, and that was what made him behave in the way you saw him behaving. “So the Prophet excused him.”

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companions used to be forgiving and patient with the people of the book and non-Muslims, as Allah instructed, for Allah said,” And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah – indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.” And said, ” Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy from themselves [even] after the truth has become clear to them”, and when the Badr battle took place, IbnAbiSalool and other non-believers new that this was the order of Allah, thus they converted to Islam.(278)

• Abdullah said, “While I was going with the Prophet through the ruins of Medina and he was reclining on a date-palm leaf stalk, some Jews passed by. Some of them said to the others, “Ask him (the Prophet) about the spirit”. Some of them said that they should not ask him that question as he might give a reply which would displease them. But some of them insisted on asking, and so one of them stood up and asked, “O Abul-Qasim! What is the spirit?” The Prophet remained quiet. I thought he was being inspired divinely. So I stayed till that state of the Prophet (while being inspired) was over. The Prophet then said, “And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind has not been given of knowledge except a little.”(288)

• Faltan BinAsim said, “We were sitting with the Prophet, peace be upon him, then the Prophet asked a man who was walking in the mosque, if he testifies that he is the Messenger of Allah. The man Said, ‘No’. The Prophet asked him if he read the Torah and the Bible. He said, ‘Yes’. Then he asked him if he read the Koran. He Said, ‘I can read it if I wanted to’. Then the Prophet asked him whether he found him (read about him) in the Torah and the Bible. He said, ‘Yes, we have read about you and your nation, and we hoped that you would be one of us, yet when you appeared we were worried that you are the one, but you are not the one, for the one mentioned in our books has seventy thousand followers of his nation who will not be accounted for their deeds nor punished, but you only have a few followers . The prophet, peace be upon him, said, “By Him in Whose Hands my life is, I am the one (mentioned) and it is my nation, and they are more than seventy thousand and seventy thousand and seventy thousand.”(290).

• Aisha said that a Jewess came to her and mentioned the punishment in the grave, saying to her, “May Allah protect you from the punishment of the grave.” Aisha then asked the Prophet about the punishment of the grave. He said, “Yes, (there is) punishment in the grave.” Aisha added, “After that I never saw the Prophet but seeking refuge with Allah from the punishment in the grave in every prayer he prayed.” (291)

• Thauban, the freed slave of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “While I was standing beside the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, one of the rabbis of the Jews came and said, ‘Peace be upon you, O Muhammad’. I pushed him back until he almost fell. Upon this he said, ‘Why did you push me?’ I said, ‘Why didn’t you say, ‘O Messenger of Allah?’ The Jew said, ‘We call him by the name by which he was named by his family’. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘My name is Muhammad with which I was named by my family’. The Jew said, ‘I have come to ask you (something)’. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, ‘Should that thing be of any benefit to you, if I tell you that?’ The Jew said, ‘I will lend my ears to it’. The Prophet, peace be upon him, drew a line with the help of the stick that he had with him and then said, ‘Ask (whatever you like). Thereupon the Jew said, ‘Where would the human beings be on the Day when the earth would change into another earth and the heavens too (would change into other heavens)?’ The Prophet said, ‘They would be in darkness beside the Bridge. The Jew said, ‘Who amongst people would be the first to cross (this bridge)?’ He said, ‘They would be the poor amongst the refugees’. The Jew said, ‘What would constitute their breakfast when they would enter Paradise?’ The Prophet said, ‘A caul of the fish-liver’. The Jew said, ‘What would be their food alter this?’ The Prophet said, ‘A bullock which was fed in the different quarters of Paradise would be slaughtered for them’. The Jew said, ‘What would be their drink?’ The Prophet said, ‘They would be given drink from the fountain which is named” Salsabil”‘. The Jew said, ‘I have come to ask you about a thing which no one amongst the people on the earth knows except an apostle or one or two men besides him. The Prophet said, ‘Would it benefit you if I tell you that?’ the Jew said, ‘I would lend ears to that’. He then said, ‘I have come to ask you about the child’. The Prophet said, ‘The reproductive substance of man is white and that of woman (i. e. ovum central portion) yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male’s substance (chromosomes and genes) prevails upon the female’s substance (chromosomes and genes), it is the male child that is created by Allah’s Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by the Decree of Allah’. The Jew said, ‘What you have said is true; verily you are an Apostle. He then returned and went away. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘He asked me about such and such things of which I have had no knowledge till Allah gave me that'”.(292)

• Anas bin Malik said, “While we were with the Messenger of Allah, sitting in the Masjid, a man entered on a camel. He made it kneel in the Masjid, and then he hobbled it. Then he said; ‘Which of you is Muhammad?’ He was reclining among them, and we said to him: ‘This white man who is reclining.’ The man said to him, ‘O son of Abdul-Muttalib.’ The Messenger of Allah said to him, ‘I have answered you.”(293)

• Ibn Abbas said, “Sons of Saad Bin Bakr, sent Dhamam bin Thalaba to the Prophet, peace be upon him. He entered on a camel. He made it kneel in the Masjid, and then he hobbled it. Then he said, ‘Which of you is the son of Abdul-Muttalib?’ The Messenger of Allah said to him, ‘I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib'”(294).

• Abu Hurayrah said, “A man and a woman of the Jews committed adultery. Some of them said to the others, ‘Let us go to this Prophet, for he has been sent with an easy law. If he gives a judgment lighter than stoning, we shall accept it, and argue about it with Allah, saying, ‘It is a judgment of one of your prophets’. So they came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, who was sitting in the mosque among his companions, and said, ‘AbulQasim, what do you think about a man and a woman who committed adultery?”(295) Al-Khattabi said, “This Hadith indicates that non-Muslims are allowed to enter mosques if necessary.”

• AbuNamlah al-Ansari said, “I was sitting with the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a Jew was also with him, a funeral passed by him. Then the Jew asked him, ‘Muhammad, does this funeral speak?’ The Prophet, peace be upon him said, ‘Allah has more knowledge’. The Jew said, ‘It speaks’. The Prophet, peace be upon him said, ‘Do not verify, nor falsify whatever the people of the Book tell you, but say, ‘We believe in Allah and His Prophet. So that you would not confirm it, if it is false, nor falsify it if it is right”.

• Abdullah said, “A Jewish Rabbi came to Prophet, peace be upon him, and he said, “O Muhammad! We learned that Allah will put all the heavens on one finger, and the earths on one finger, and the trees on one finger, and the water and the dust on one finger, and all the other created beings on one finger. Then He will say, ‘I am the King.’ Thereupon the Prophet smiled so that his pre-molar teeth became visible, and that was the confirmation of the Rabbi. Then Prophet, peace be upon him, recited, ‘ They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal, while the earth entirely will be [within] his grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in his right hand. Exalted is he and high above what they associate with Him.'” [az-Zumar: 67] (300).

• Tariq bin Shihab said, ‘A Jew said to Umar, ‘If this Verse had been revealed to us, we would have taken it as a festival (Eid), “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion”. Umar said: ‘I know the day when it was revealed and the night of which it was revealed; a Friday night when we were with Messenger of Allah in Arafat.'”(301)

• Qutailah, a woman from Juhainah, said, “A Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, “You are setting up rivals (to Allah) and associating others with Him. You say, ‘Whatever Allah wills and you will,’ and you say, ‘By the Ka’bah.'” So the Prophet commanded them, if they wanted to swear an oath, to say: “By the Lord of the Ka’bah;” and to say, “Whatever Allah wills, and then what you will.”(302)

• Hudhayfah narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Do not say: “What Allah wills and so and so wills,” but say: “What Allah wills and afterwards so and so wills.”(303)

Accepting their Gifts:

• Abdullah bin Umar said, “Umar bin Al-Khattab saw a silken dress (cloak) being sold at the gate of the Mosque and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Why don’t you buy it and wear it on Fridays and when the delegates come to you!” The Prophet said, “This is worn by the one who will have no share in the Hereafter.” Later on some silk dresses were brought and The Prophet sent one of them to Umar. Umar said, “How do you give me this to wear while you said what you said about the dress of ‘Utarid?” The Prophet said, “I have not given it to you to wear.” So, Umar gave it to a non-Muslim brother of his in Mecca”.(307)

• Asma’ bint Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “My mother came to me while she was still a polytheist, so I asked Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, “My mother, who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. Shall I maintain relations with her?” He replied, “Yes, maintain relations with your mother”.(308)
• Anas bin Malik said, “A silken cloak was presented to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he used to forbid the usage of silk (by men). When the people were fascinated by the cloak. He said, “By Allah in Whose Hands the life of Muhammad is, the handkerchiefs of Saad bin Muadh in Paradise are better than this.” Anas added, “The present was sent to the Prophet by Ukaidir (a Christian) from Dauma.”(309-310)

• Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said that a Jewish woman came to her and asked her to give her something, so Aisha gave her something, and she said, “May Allah protect you from the torment of the grave.” ‘Aisha said, “She made me worried, until the Messenger of Allah came and I mentioned that to him. He said, ‘They are tormented in their graves with a torment that the animals hear.”‘(312)

• Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a tall pagan with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, ‘Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?’ The non-Muslim replied, ‘They are for sale.’ The Prophet bought one sheep from him.”Ibn Hajar said, “This hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to accept gifts from all non-Muslims, since the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him if the sheep was a gift.”(313)

• Abu Dawood narrated in (The book of the Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims), that Abdullah Alhozna said, “I said to Belal bin Rabah, the muezzin (the one who calls for prayer) of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘O Bilal! Tell me about how the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, spent his money.’ He said, ‘He didn’t own anything. And if an impoverished Muslim came by to visit him, he would ask me to borrow money in order to clothe and feed him. However, I once encountered a non-Muslim who asked me to borrow money from no one other than him, so I did. And while I was about to call for prayer, the non-Muslim came by and said to me in an aggressive tone ‘O black man, I can belittle you, enslave you, and make you a shepherded, just like you used to be, if you don’t pay back your debt.’ I felt sad, and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came, “O Messenger of Allah, the non-Muslim whom I borrowed money from told me so and so, and you don’t have any money to pay him back, nor do I, hence I will stay and work with some of the people who had converted to Islam, until the messenger, peace be upon him, earns the money to pay back my debt”. I went back to my house, and as dawn broke, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, summoned me and gave me some of the gifts that were just sent to him by one of the leaders, in order to pay my debt. Thus I paid back my debt.”

• Anas ibn Malik said, “The King Dhu Yazan presented to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a suit of clothes which he had purchased for thirty-three camels or thirty-three she-camels. He accepted it”.(315)

• Buraydah said, “The Coptic Muqawqis gave the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him’ Maria’, the mother of Ibrahim, the son of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and ‘The mother of Abdul Rahman bin Hassan’, which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, gave to Hassan ibn Thabit. Muqawqis also gave the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, a mule and he accepted it.”(316).

• Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn al-Harith said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, purchased a suit of clothes for twenty she-camels and some more, and presented it to the king DhuYazan.”

• Salman al-Farsi said, “I was a Persian man, one of the people of Isbahaan, from a village called Jayy. My father was the chief of his village, and I was the dearest of to him. He loved me so much that he kept me in his house near the fire, as girls are kept in. I strove hard in the Magian religion until I became the keeper of the fire, which I tended and did not let go out for a moment. My father had a huge garden, and he was busy one day with some construction work, so he said, ‘O my son, I am too busy with this building today, go and check my garden’, and he told me some of the things he wanted done. I went out, heading towards his garden, and I passed by one of the Christian churches, where I could hear their voices as they were praying. I did not know anything about the people because my father had kept me in his house. When I passed by and heard their voices, I entered upon them to see what they were doing. When I saw them, I was impressed with their prayer and I was attracted to their way. I said, ‘By Allah, this is better than the religion that we follow. I did not leave them until the sun set, and I forgot about my father’s garden and did not go there. I said to them, ‘Where did this religion originate from?’ They said, ‘From Syria’. Then I went back to my father, who had sent people out to look for me, and I had distracted him from all his work. When I came to him, he said, ‘O my son, where were you? Did I not ask you to do what I asked?’ I said, ‘I passed by some people who were praying in a church of theirs, and I was impressed with what I saw of their religion. By Allah, I stayed with them until the sun set.’ He said, ‘Son, there is nothing good in that religion. Our religion is better than that. I said, ‘No, by Allah, it is better than our religion. He was afraid of me, and he put fetters on my legs and kept me in his house. I sent word to the Christians saying, ‘If any Christian merchants come to you from Syria, tell me about them’. They said that some Christian merchants came to them from Syria, and they told me about them. I said to them, ‘Please inform me, when they have completed their business and want to go back to their own country’. So when they wanted to go back to their own country, they told me about that, and I threw off the irons from my legs and went out with them, until I came to Syria. When I reached Syria, I said, ‘Who knows this religion the best?’ They said, ‘The bishop in the church’. So I went to him and said, ‘I like this religion, and I would like to stay with you and serve you in your church and learn from you and pray with you’. He said, ‘Come in’. So I went in with him, but he was a bad man. He would ask them to pay alms, yet he kept a great deal of it for himself and did not give it to the poor; until he amassed seven chests of gold and silver. I hated him deeply for what he did. Thus, when he died and the Christians gathered to bury him. I said to them, ‘He was an immoral man; for he asked you to pay alms, yet he kept a great deal of it for himself and did not give it to the poor’. They said, ‘How do you know that? Show us where his treasure is’. So I showed them where it was and they brought out seven chests filled with gold and silver. When they saw that they said, ‘By Allah, we will never bury him’, then they crucified him and pelted him with stones. Then they brought another man and appointed him in his place, yet I have never seen a man who prayed the five daily prayers better than him; he shunned this world and sought the Hereafter, and no one strived harder than him. I loved him as I had never loved anyone before, and I stayed with him for a while. Then when he was about to die, I said, ‘I was with you and I loved you as I had never loved anyone before, and now you are about to die, hence to whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘O my son, by Allah, I do not know of anyone who nowadays follows what I had followed. The people are doomed they have changed and abandoned most of what they used to follow, except for a man in Mosul who follows what I used to follow, so go and join him. When he died and was buried, I went to the man in Mosul. I said to him, ‘The bishop told me that you follow the same teachings which he followed. He said to me, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with him, and I found him to be a good man who followed the teachings his companion had followed, but he died. When he was dying I said to him, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘Son, by Allah I do not know of anyone who follows what we used to follow except a man in Nasayyibeen, so go to him. Thus I went to the man in Nasayyibeen when he died and was buried. I came to him and told him my story and what my companion had told me to do. He said, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with him and I found him to be a follower of the same way as his two companions, and I stayed with a good man. By Allah, soon death came upon him, and when he was dying I said to him, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘Son, by Allah we do not know of anyone left who follows our way and to whom I can tell you to go, except a man in Ammooriyyah. He follows something like what we follow. If you wish, go to him, for he follows our way. So I went to the man in Ammooriyyah and told him my story. He said, ‘Stay with me’. So I stayed with a man who was following the same way as his companions, and I became wealthy and bought lots of cows and sheep, and when he was about to die I said, ‘To whom do you advise me to go?’ He said, ‘By Allah, I do not know of anyone who follows our way to whom I can advise you to go. But there has come the time of a Prophet, who will be sent with the religion of Ibrahim. He will appear in the land of the Arabs and will migrate to a land between two harrahs (lava fields, land with black rocks), between which there are palm trees. He will have characteristics that will not be hidden. He will eat of what is given as a gift but he will not eat of what is given as charity. Between his shoulder blades is the Seal of Prophet hood. If you can go to that land then do so. I stayed in Ammooriyyah after he died then some merchants of Kalb passed by me and I said to them, ‘Will you take me to the land of the Arabs and I will give you these cows and sheep of mine?’ They said, ‘Yes’. So I gave them the cows and sheep, and they took me there, but when they brought me to Wadi al-Qura they wronged me and sold me as a slave to a Jewish man. When I was with him I saw the palm trees, and I hoped that this was the land that my companion had described to me, but I was not sure. Whilst I was with him, a cousin of his from BaniQurayzah came to him from Madinah, and he sold me to him, and he took me to Madeenah. By Allah, as soon as I saw it, I recognized it from the description given to me by my companion. I stayed there, and Allah sent His Messenger, who stayed in Makkah, and I did not hear anything about him because I was so busy with the work of a slave. Then he migrated to Madinah, and I was at the top of a palm tree belonging to my master, doing some work on it, and my master was sitting there. Then a cousin of his came and stood beside him, and said, ‘They are gathering right now in Quba’ to welcome a man who has come from Makkah today, and they say that he is a Prophet. When I heard that, I began to shiver so much that I thought I would fall on top of my master. I came down from the tree and started saying to that cousin of his, ‘What are you saying, what are you saying?’ My master got angry and he struck me with his fist and said, ‘What has it got to do with you? Go back to your work.’ I said, ‘Nothing; I just wanted to make sure of what he was saying’. I had something that I had collected, and when evening came, I went to the Messenger of Allah when he was in Quba, and I entered upon him and said to him, ”I have heard that you are a righteous man and that you have companions who are strangers and are in need. This is something that I have to give in charity, and I see that you are more in need of it than anyone else. I brought it near to him and the Messenger of Allah said to his companions, ‘Eat’, but he refrained from eating. I said to myself, ‘This is the first sign’. Then I went away and collected some more. The Messenger of Allah moved to Madinah, and then I came to him and said, ‘I see that you do not eat (food given in) charity; this is a gift with which I wish to honor you. The Messenger of Allah ate some of it and told his companions to eat too. I said to myself, ‘This is the second sign’. Then I came to the Messenger of Allah when he was in Baqee al Gharqad, where he had attended the funeral of one of his companions and he was wearing two shawls and was sitting among his companions. I greeted him then I moved behind him, trying to look at his back to see the Seal that my companion had described to me. When the Messenger of Allah saw me going behind him, he realized that I was trying to find confirmation of something that had been described to me, so he let his rida drop from his back, and I saw the Seal and recognized it. Then I embraced him, kissing the Seal and weeping, and the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Turn around.’ So I turned around and I told him my story. The Messenger of Allaah wanted his companions to hear that. Then I was kept busy with the work of a slave, and I missed attending the battle of Badr and Uhud with the Messenger of Allah. Then the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Draw up a contract of manumission, O Salman.’ So I signed a contract of manumission with my master in return for three hundred palm trees which I would plant for him, and forty uqiyahs. The Messenger of Allah said to his companions: “Help your brother.” So they helped me with the palm trees, one man gave thirty small trees and another gave twenty, and another gave fifteen, and another gave ten, each man gave according to what he had, until they had collected three hundred small trees for me. Then the Messenger of Allah said to me, ‘Go, O Salman, and dig the holes where they are to be planted. When you have finished, come to me and I will plant them with my own hand.’ So I dug the holes for them, and my companions helped me, then when I had finished, I came to him and told him. The Messenger of Allah came out with me and we started to bring the trees close and the Messenger of Allah planted them with his own hand. By Allah, not one single tree among them died. So I had paid off the trees but there still remained the money. A piece of gold the size of an egg was brought to the Messenger of Allah from one of his campaigns. He said, ‘What happened to the Persian who had a contract of manumission?’ I was summoned to him and he said, ‘Take this and pay off what you owe, O Salman.’ I said, ‘How could this pay off everything I owe, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Take it, and Allah will help you to pay off what you owe.’ So I took it and weighed it for them, it was forty uqiyahs, so I paid them their dues and I was set free. I was present with the Messenger of Allah at al Khandaq, and after that I did not miss any major event with him.”(320)

Keeping Family ties with non-Muslim Relatives:

• Ibn Abbas recited the Verse, “Except to be kind to me for my kin-ship to you”, [as-Shura:23]. Then Said bin Jubair said, “The Verse implies the kinship of Muhammad.” Ibn Abbas said, “There was not a single house (Tribe) of Quraish but had a kinship to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and so the above Verse was revealed in this connection, and its interpretation is, ‘O Quraish, You should keep good relations with me (Muhammad)” (321)

• Abu Abdullah Bin Amr bin Al-Assaid, “I heard Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say, “The family of so-and-so (Abu Talib) are not my supporters. My supporter is Allah and the righteous believing people. But they (that family) have kinship (Rahm) with me and I will be good and dutiful to them.”(322)IbnHajar said, “This Hadith indicates the importance of maintaining ties with non-Muslim relatives.”(323)

• Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said, “My mother came to me, hoping for my favor, so I asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, “May I treat her kindly?” He replied, “Yes.” Ibn Uyaina said, “Then Allah revealed, ‘Allah forbids you not with regards to those who fought not against you because of religion, and drove you not out from your homes, that you should show them kindness and deal justly with them.'[Al-Mumtahana: 8].(325)

• Saad bin Abi Waqassaid, “Four verses from the Book of Allah, were revealed about me, for my mother swore not to eat or drink until I leave Muhammad, peace be upon him, then Allah the exalted revealed, ” But if they endeavor to make you associate with me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to me [in repentance]”, and the second was when I lifted a sword I liked and said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, grant me this’ Then Allah revealed, ” They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the bounties [of war]. Say, “The [decision concerning] bounties is for Allah and the Messenger.” And the third was when I got sick and said to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, when he came to visit me, ‘I want to donate half of my money in my will.’ He said, ‘No’. I Said, ‘Then third?’He remained silent, then the third became permissible after that, and the fourth was when I drank wine with some of the Ansar, and a man hit my nose and I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, then Allah Almighty revealed the verse about the prohibition of alcohol” (326).

Consoling and burying a non-Muslim:

• Abdul Razak said, “I heard Ibn Jreg and Thaowri say that Muslims are allowed to console non-Muslims.”(330)

• Muammar said, “Muslims can bury a Jew or a Christian, yet they are not allowed to pray for them.”(331)

• IbnJreg said, “Ataa said to me that a Muslim is allowed to walk in the funeral of a non-Muslim.” (332)

• IbnJreg said, “Suleiman ibn Musa saaid, ‘they used to walk in our funerals.'” (333)

• Abdul Razak said, “Jews and Christians walked along with Muslims in the funeral of Ibn Dawood.”Muammar said, “It is allowed”(334).

• Jabir bin Abdullah said, “We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when a funeral passed, he stood up for it. When we went to carry it, we found that it was a funeral of a Jew. We, therefore said, ‘This is the funeral of a Jew!’ He said, ‘Death is a fearful event, so when you see a funeral, stand up.'” (335)

• Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Layla said, “Sahl bin Hunaif and Qais bin Saad bin Ubadah were in Al-Qadisiyyah when a funeral passed by them, so they stood up and it was said to them, ‘It is one of the local people.’ They said, ‘A funeral passed the Messenger of Allah and he stood up, and it was said to him, ‘It is a Jew’s funeral’. He said, ‘Is it not a soul?”‘. (336) Judge Ayadh said, “We are allowed to walk in the funeral of a non-Muslim.”(337), And Nwawi said that it is preferable.(338)

Inheritance and Wills:

• Amer Shabi said that there is nothing wrong with writing a will to a Jew and a Christian (339).

• Qatada said, “Muslims are allowed to write a will to a Jew and a Christian, yet they are not allowed to give them some of the inheritance.” (340)

• Qatada said, “Muslims are allowed to write a will to a non-Muslim relative.”(341)

• Ata said that Muslims are allowed to write a will to a non-Muslim relative.(342)

• Al-Hasan said, “Muslims are only allowed to give a non-Muslim, the third of the inheritance.”(343)

• Ata said that a Muslim can give a non-Muslim relative some of his money while he is alive, and some of his inheritance after his death. (344)

• Ibn Umar said that Safia gave some of her inheritance to a Jewish relative. (345)

Marriage of the People of the Book:

Allah said, “And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you. When you have given them their due compensation ” [Al-Maeda: 5].

Quoting them and Reading their poetry:

• Sharid said, “One day when I rode behind the Prophet, peace be upon him, he said to me, ‘Do you remember any poetry of Umayya bin Abu Salt?’. I said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘Then go on’. I recited a couplet, and he said, ‘Go on’. Then I again recited a couplet and he said, ‘Go on’. I recited one hundred couplets (of his poetry). This hadith has been reported on the authority of Sharid through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.”(346)

• Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Tell others the stories of the sons of Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so.”(347)

• Abdullah ibnAmrsaid, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to relate to us traditions from the children of Israel till morning came; he would not get up except for obligatory prayer.”(348)

Benevolence to non-Muslims:

• Abu Saaid said, “Some of the companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, went on a journey till they reached some of the Arab tribes. They asked them to take in as their guests but they refused. The chief of that tribe was then bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and they tried their best to cure him but they couldn’t. Some of them said, ‘Nothing worked! Go to the people who resided here at night, for some of them might have a treatment.’ They went to the companions and said, ‘Our chief has been bitten by a snake and we have tried everything but he wasn’t cured. Have you got anything useful?’ One of them replied, ‘Yes, by Allah! I can recite a Ruqya(healing verses from the Quran), but as you have refused to accept us as your guests, I will not recite the Ruqya for you unless you fix for us some wages for it.’ They agreed to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them then went and recited (Surat-ul-Fatiha),” Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds”, and puffed over the chief who became all right as if he was released from a chain, and got up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness. They paid them what they agreed to pay. Some of the companions then suggested to share the spoils, but the one who performed the recitation said, ‘Do not divide them till we go to the Prophet and narrate the whole story to him, and wait for his order’. So, they went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and narrated the story, he then asked, “How did you come to know that Suratul- Fatiha was recited as Ruqya?” Then he added, “You have done the right thing. Divide (what you have earned) and assign a share for me as well.” The Prophet smiled thereupon.”(349)

• Mujahid said, “Abdullah bin Amr had a sheep slaughtered for his family, so when he came he said, ‘Have you given some to our Jewish neighbor? For I heard the Messenger of Allah say, ‘Jibril continued to advise me about (treating) the neighbors so (kindly and politely), that I thought he would order me to make them heirs.”(350)

• Abu Basra al-Ghafari said, “I came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, before I converted to Islam. He gave me some of the milk he used to give to his family. So I converted to Islam when I woke up, and the Prophet’s children said, ‘Are we going to sleep on an empty stomach today like we did yesterday?’ Then the Prophet milked a goat and gave me its milk, and I drank it until I was full.”(351).

• Jaber Bin Abdullah said, “When it was the day of the battle of Badr, prisoners of war were brought including Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked for a shirt for him. It was found that the shirt of Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason why the Prophet took off his shirt and gave it to Abdullah.” IbnUyayna added, “He had done the Prophet some favor for which the Prophet liked to reward him.” (352)

• Uthman ibn Abi Sulayman said, “The pagans of Quraish who came to Madina to redeem their captives, slept in the mosque, including Jubayr ibn Mutem, who said, ‘I used to hear the Prophet, peace be upon him, recite the Quran.'”(353).

• Imran bin Husain said, “We were with the Prophet on a journey. We travelled the whole night, and when dawn approached, we took a rest and slept till the sun rose high in the sky. Abu Bakr woke up first, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, used not to be awakened from his sleep. Umar woke up and then Abu Bakr sat by the side of the Prophet’s head and started saying, ‘Allah Akbar’ raising his voice till the Prophet woke up, (and after traveling for a while) he dismounted and led us in the morning prayer. A man amongst the people failed to join us in the prayer, and when the Prophet had finished the prayer, he asked the man, “O so-and-so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with us?” He replied, “I am Junub,” The Prophet ordered him to perform Tayammum(ablution) with clean earth. The man then offered the prayer. The Prophet ordered me and a few others to go ahead of him. We had become very thirsty, and while we were on our way (looking for water), we came across a lady (riding an animal), hanging her legs between two water-skins. We asked her, “Where can we get water?” She replied, ‘Oh! There is no water’. We asked, ‘how far is your house from the water’ She replied, ‘A distance of a day and a night travel’. We said, ‘Come on to the Prophet.’ “She asked, ‘Who is the Prophet?’ So we brought her to the Prophet, and she told him what she had told us before and added that she was the mother of orphans. So the Prophet ordered that her two water-skins be brought and he rubbed the mouths of the water-skins. As we were thirsty, we drank till we quenched our thirst and we were forty men. We also filled all our water skins and other utensils with water, but we did not water the camels. The water skin was so full that it was almost about to burst. The Prophet then said, “Bring what (foodstuff) you have.” So some dates and pieces of bread were collected for the lady, and when she went to her people, she said, “I have met either the greatest magician or a prophet as the people claim.” So Allah guided the people of that village through that lady. She embraced Islam and they all embraced Islam.”(353)
Accepting non-Muslims’ Invitation:

• Asma the daughter of Abu Bakr said, “I was once in the land of Nadir, which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah and Zubair. And Zubair went with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and we had a Jew neighbor who cooked a savory sheep, while I was pregnant with my daughter Khadija. I went to his wife and asked her to give me fire (means to set a fire); when I didn’t even need them, only so that she could offer me some food, but she didn’t, I did that thrice, but my attempts were futile. So I went home and cried and prayed to Allah. The Jewish man came and said to his wife, ‘Did anybody visit you today?’ She said, ‘No one except the Arabian woman who came seeking fire’. He said, ‘I will never touch the food unless you send her some of it’. So his wife sent me some of the food and I ate it.” (356)

Freeing Non-Muslim Slaves:

• Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The last words of the Prophet, peace be upon him, were, ‘Prayer, prayer; fear Allah about (your slaves)'”(357).
• Ismail ibn Abi Hakeem said that Omar bin Abdul Aziz freed his young Christian slave.(358)
• Ibn Umar freed his Christian slave.(359)
• Ibn Zaid said that his father freed his Magian slave.(360).

Forgiving non-Muslims:

• Ata bin Yasar said, “I met Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As and asked him, ‘Tell me about the description of Allah’s Messenger which is mentioned in Torah He replied, ‘Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Qur’an as follows, ‘O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah’s True religion) and a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), and a warner (to the unbelievers) and guardian of the illiterates. You are my slave and my messenger. I have named you “Al-Mutawakkil” (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh nor a noisemaker in the markets and you do not do evil to those who do evil to you, but you deal with them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,” With which will be opened blind eyes and deaf ears and closed hearts.”(361)

• Ka’ab said, “The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is described in the Old Testament, as a person who is neither rude nor relentless, nor a loud person in the market. A person who does not do evil to those who do him evil, but deals with them with forgiveness and kindness, his nation praises God the Almighty all the time, and performs ablution, and their line in battle is as their line in prayer either, recite Quran at night. The Prophet will be born in Mecca and will migrate to Madina.”(362).

• Alisha said, “A Jew from BanuZuraiq, called Labid bin al-Asam cast a spell upon Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him. As a result, he felt that he had been doing something (under the influence of the spell) whereas in fact he had not been doing that. This lasted until one day or during one night Allah’s Messenger prayed to Allah (to dispel its effects). He prayed again, then he said, ‘Alisha, Do you know that Allah has told me about what I had asked Him? There came to me two men and one amongst them sat near my head and the other near my feet. He who sat near my head said to the one who sat near my feet, ‘What is the trouble with the man?’ He said, ‘The spell has affected him’. He said, ‘Who has cast that?’ The other one said, ‘Labid bin Asam. He said, ‘What is the thing by which he transmitted its effect?’ He said, ‘By the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm. He said, ‘Where is that.’ He replied, ‘In the well of DhiArwan’. She said, ‘Allah’s Messenger sent some of his Companions there and then said, ‘Aisha, by Allah, its water was yellow like henna and its trees were like heads of the devils. She said that she asked Allah’s Messenger as to why he did not burn that. He said, ‘No, Allah has cured me and I do not like that I should induce people to commit any high-handedness in regard (to one another), but I only commanded that it should be buried.'(363)

• Aisha said, “The Prophet was bewitched once, that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done”.(364)

• Yonus said, “Ibn Shihab was asked, ‘Do we kill who the people of the book’s magicians?’ He Said, ‘We have heard that a Jew cast a spell on the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, yet he did not kill him”(366)

• Suraqa Bin Khashaam said, “The messengers of the non-Muslims of Quraish came to us declaring that they had assigned for the persons who would kill or arrest the Prophet and Abu Bakr, a reward equal to their blood money. While I was sitting in one of the gatherings of my tribe Bani Mudlij, a man from them came to us and stood up while we were sitting, and said, ‘O Suraqa! No doubt, I have just seen some people far away on the seashore, and I think they are Muhammad and his companions.’ Suraqa added, “I too realized that it must have been them. But I said ‘No, it is not them, but you have seen so-and-so, and so-and-so whom we saw set out.’ I stayed in the gathering for a while and then got up and left for my home, and ordered my slave-girl to get my horse which was behind a hillock, and keep it ready for me. Then I took my spear and left by the back door of my house dragging the lower end of the spear on the ground and keeping it low. Then I reached my horse, mounted it and made it gallop. When I approached them (Muhammad and Abu Bakr), my horse stumbled and I fell down from it, Then I stood up, got hold of my quiver and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether I should harm them or not, and the lot which I disliked came out. But I remounted my horse and let it gallop, giving no importance to the divining arrows. When I heard the recitation of the Quran by the Prophet, who did not look hither and thither while Abu Bakr was doing it often, suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground up to the knees, and I fell down from it. Then I rebuked it and it got up but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground, and when it stood up straight again, its fore-legs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Then again I drew lots with the divining arrows, and the lot which I disliked, came out. So I called upon them to feel secure. They stopped, and I remounted my horse and went to them. When I saw how I had been hampered from harming them, it came to my mind that the cause of Allah’s Prophet (Islam) will become victorious. So I said to him, ‘Your people have assigned a reward equal to the blood money for your head.’ Then I told them all the plans the people of Mecca had made concerning them. Then I offered them some journey food and goods, but they refused to take anything and did not ask for anything, but the Prophet said, ‘Do not tell others about us.’ Then I asked him to write a statement of security and peace for me. He ordered ‘Amr bin Fuhaira who wrote it for me on a parchment, and then the Prophet proceeded on his way.(367)

• Abu Huraira said, “When Khaibar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophets as a gift by the Jews. The Prophet ordered, ‘Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.’ The Jews were summoned and the Prophet said, ‘I am going to ask you a question. Will you tell the truth?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet asked, ‘Who is your father?’ They replied, ‘So-and-so.’ He said, ‘You have told a lie; your father is so-and-so.’ They said, ‘You are right.’ He said, ‘Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?’ They replied, ‘Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you can realize our lie as you have done regarding our father.’ On that he asked, ‘Who are the people of Hell?’ They said, ‘We shall remain in Hell for a short period, and after that you will replace us.’ The Prophet said, ‘You may be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.’ Then he asked, ‘Will you now tell me the truth if I ask you a question?’ They said, ‘Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim.’ He asked, ‘Have you poisoned this sheep?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ He asked, ‘What made you do so?’ They said, ‘We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would get rid of you, and if you are a prophet then the poison would not harm you.'”

• Anas said, “A Jewess brought a poisoned sheep for the Prophet, peace be upon him, who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet and he was asked, ‘Shall we kill her?’ He said, ‘No.’ Anas added, “I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah’s Prophet.”(368)

• Abu Hurayrah, said, ” The son of Abdullah ibn Abi Salool passed by the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, while he was troubled ( because of Ibn Salool), sitting under the shade of (a tree) and said to the Prophet, ‘By Allah, I may bring his head to you, If you wish (kill him for your sake)’. But the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to be good to his to his father.”(369).

• Anas bin Malik said, “A Jew passed by the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, ‘As-Samu upon you'(twisted the word so that it would mean poison- Death be upon you). The Prophet said in reply, “And upon you.” The Prophet then said to his companions, “Do you know what he (the Jew) has said? He said, ‘As-Samu ‘Alaika.'” They said, “O Prophet! Shall we kill him?” The Prophet, said, “No. When the people of the Book greet you, say, ‘And upon you.'”(372)

• Aisha said, “A group of Jews asked permission to visit the Prophet (and when they were admitted) they said, “As- Samu ‘Alaika (Death be upon you).” I said (to them), “But death and the curse of Allah be upon you!” The Prophet said, “O Aisha! Allah is kind and lenient and likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.” I said, “Haven’t you heard what they said?” He said, “I said (to them), ‘Wa ‘Alaikum (and upon you).”(373)

• Aisha said,”The Prophet, peace be upon him, was wearing two thick Qitri garments on. When he would sit, he would sweat since they were so heavy for him. Some clothes arrived from Ash-Sham from a Jew. I said, ‘Perhaps you could dispatch a request to him to buy some garments (on credit) from him until it is easy (to pay). So he sent a message to him and he said, ‘I know what he wants. He only wants to take away my wealth’ or ‘my Dirham.’ So the Prophet said, ‘He has lied, indeed he knows that I am the one with the most Taqwa (piety) among them, and the best at fulfilling trusts among them.'”(374)

• Abu Huraira said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, me (during the conquest of Mecca), call the Ansar to me. So I called out to them and they came hurriedly. He said, ‘O ye Assembly of the Ansaar, do you see the ruffians of the Quraish?’ They said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘See, when you meet them tomorrow, wipe them out’. He hinted at this with his hand, placing his right hand on his left and said, ‘You will meet us at as-Safa’. (Abu Huraira continued), ‘Whoever was seen by them that day was put to death. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon, ascended the mount of as-Safa’. The Ansar also came there and surrounded the mount. Then Abu Sufyan came and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, Quraish has perished. No member of the Quraish tribe will survive this day.’ The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, ‘Who enters the house of Abu Safyin will be safe, who lays down arms will be safe, who locks his door will be safe’. (Some of) the Ansar said, ‘(After all) the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. At this, Divine inspiration descended upon the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, he said, ‘You were saying that the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. Do you know what my name is? I am Muhammad, the bondman of God and His Messenger. (He repeated this thrice.) I left my native place for the sake of Allah and joined you. So I will live with you and die with you’. Now the Ansar said, ‘By God, we said (that) only out of our greed for Allah and His Messenger’. He said: Allah and His Prophet testify to you and accept your apology.”(375)

• Abdullah ibn Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say when he returned from a military expedition or a hajj or an umra, three takbirs on every elevated part of the land, and then he used to say, “There is no god but Allah, alone, without partner. To Him belongs the Kingdom and to Him belongs the praise and He has power over everything. Returning, making tawba, serving, prostrating, praising our Lord. Allah has promised truly and given his slave victory and defeated the tribes alone.”

• Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “I proceeded in the company of the Prophet towards Najd to participate in a conquest. When the Prophet returned, I returned with him. Midday came upon us while we were in a valley having many thorny trees. The Prophet and the people dismounted and dispersed to rest in the shade of the trees. The Prophet rested under a tree and hung his sword on it. We all took a nap and suddenly we heard the Prophet calling us. (We woke up) to see a nomad with him. The Prophet said, “This nomad took out my sword while I was sleeping and when I woke up, I found the unsheathed sword in his hand and he challenged me saying, ‘Who will save you from me?’ I said thrice, ‘Allah.’ The Prophet did not punish him but sat down.”(377)

• Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Dimad came to Mecca and he belonged to the tribe of AzdShanu’a, and he used to heal people who were under a spell. He heard the foolish people of Mecca say that Muhammad, peace be upon him, was under a spell. Upon this he said, ‘If 1 were to come across this man, Allah might cure him at my hand’. He met him and said, ‘Muhammad, I can heal people who were under a spell, and Allah cures one whom he so desires at my hand. Do you desire (this)?’ Upon this the Messenger of Allah, said, ‘praise is due to Allah, we praise him, ask his help; and he whom Allah guides aright there is none to lead him astray, and he who is led astray there is none to guide him, and I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, he is one, having no partner with him, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger. Now after this he (Dimad) said: “repeat these words of yours before me, and the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, repeated these to him thrice; and he said I have heard the words of soothsayers and the words of magicians, and the words of poets, but I have never heard such words as yours, and they reach the depth (of the ocean of eloquence) ; bring forth your hand so that I should take oath of fealty to you on Islam. So he took an oath of allegiance to him. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “It (this allegiance of yours) is on behalf of your people too”, He said. The Messenger of Allah sent an expedition, and the flying column passed by his people. The leader of the flying column said to the detachment, ‘Did you find anything from these people?’ One of the people said, ‘I found a utensil for water’. Upon this he (the commander) said, ‘Return it, for he is one of the people of Dimad.'”(378)

• Ibn Ishaq said that Amir bin Wahab Al-Jamahi sat with Safwan bin Umaya, although he was a vicious non-Muslim.

• Abu Huraira said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a Sariya (battalion) of ten men as spies under the leadership of Asim bin Thabit al-Ansari, the grandfather of Asim bin Umar Al-Khattab. They proceeded till they reached Hadaa, a place between Usfan, and Mecca, and their news reached a branch of the tribe of Hudhail called Bani Lihyan. About two-hundred men, who were all archers, hurried to follow their tracks till they found the place where they had eaten dates which they had brought with them from Medina. They said, “These are the dates of Yathrib (Medina), “and continued following their tracks when Asim and his companions saw their pursuers, they went up a high place and the infidels circled them. The infidels said to them, “Come down and surrender, and we promise and guarantee you that we will not kill any one of you” Asim bin Thabit; the leader of the Sariya said, “By Allah! I will not come down to be under the protection of infidels. O Allah! Convey our news to your prophet. Then the infidels threw arrows at them till they martyred Asim along with six other men, and three men came down accepting their promise and convention, and they were Khubaib-al-Ansari and Ibn Dathina and another man So, when the infidels captured them, they undid the strings of their bows and tied them. Then the third (of the captives) said, “This is the first betrayal. By Allah! I will not go with you. No doubt these, namely the martyred, have set a good example to us.” So, they dragged him and tried to compel him to accompany them, but as he refused, they killed him. They took Khubaid and Ibn Dathina with them and sold them (as slaves) in Mecca (and all that took place) after the battle of Badr, Khubaib was bought by the sons of Al-Harith bin Amir Bin Naufal bin Abd Manaf. It was Khubaib who had killed Al-Harith bin Amir on the day of the battle of Badr. So, Khubaib remained a prisoner with those people. Ubaidullah bin Iyyad said that the daughter of Al-Harith had told him, “When those people gathered (to kill Khubaib) he borrowed a razor from me to shave his pubes and I gave it to him. Then he took a son of mine while I was unaware when he came upon him. I saw him placing my son on his thigh and the razor was in his hand. I got scared so much that Khubaib noticed the agitation on my face and said, ‘Are you afraid that I will kill him? No, I will never do so.’ By Allah, I never saw a prisoner better than Khubaib. By Allah, one day I saw him eating of a bunch of grapes in his hand while he was chained in irons, and there was no fruit at that time in Mecca.” The daughter of Al-Harith used to say, “It was a boon Allah bestowed upon Khubaib.”(380)This Hadith indicates Islam’s tolerance, for Khubaib could have killed the boy since he knew they would kill him but he didn’t.

• Abdul Wahid bin Abi Auf said, “Abu Sufyan ibn Harb had asked some of the people of Quraish in Mecca to assassinate the Prophet while he walks in the market, then a nomad came and told ibn Harb that he would be the one to assassinate the Prophet. He took a dagger and went out at night. He then reached the mosque and asked about the whereabouts of the Prophet, peace be upon him. Some people told him to head to Bani Abd Ashhal, so he went to Bani Abd Ashhal, and found the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, (delivering a sermon) to a group of his companions in the mosque. When he entered the mosque and the Messenger of Allah saw him, he knew that he came to assassinate him, and told his companions that Allah would protect him. The nomad bent to kill the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, then Asid bin Khadir, grabbed him and took away the dagger he was hiding. The nomad then feared for his life and asked them to forgive him, and told them that Abu Sufyan ordered him to assassinate the Prophet. He then was held captive in the house of Asid bin Khadir, and when they released him in the morning, he chose to convert to Islam.”(381)

• Zaid ibn Abi Habib said, “Abdullah bin Saham sent a letter (on behalf of the Prophet, peace be upon him) to Khosrau, king of Persia, whereupon he asked him to convert to Islam and warned him that he will be responsible for the sins of the Magi, if he rejects Islam. Khosrau read it, and tore it into pieces. He then ordered Bazam, his deputy to Yemen, to bring the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to him. Bazam then sent Khakara and kharmana to bring the Prophet, from Hijaz to Persia to meet Khosrau. When they arrived at Taif, they found a man from Quraish, and asked him about the whereabouts of the Prophet. He told them that he can be found in Madina. Hence, the people of Taif rejoiced since they thought that Khosrau will manage to stop Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. When the two Persian messengers arrived at Madina, they went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and told him that Khosrau ordered Bazam to bring the Prophet to him, and that if he refuses to come, then Khosrau will eliminate him, his people and his country. Yet, it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, that Khosrau’s son Hirōah killed him in a certain night, so he told them about that, but they did not believe him. They went back to Bazam who received a letter from Khosrau’s son Hirōah, announcing Hirōah the new king after he has killed his father, Bazam then knew that the Prophet, peace be upon him is truly a Messenger from Allah, thus he and the Persians in Yemen converted to Islam.” (382). This Hadith indicates Islam’s tolerance, since the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers whom Bazam sent, and forgave them even though they came to threaten him.

• Ibn `Abbas said, “Musa ilama-al-Kadhdhab (the liar) came in the life-time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, with many of his people (to Medina) and said, “If Muhammad makes me his successor, I will follow him.” the Prophet, peace be upon him, went up to him with Thabit bin Qais bin Shams; and was carrying a piece of a date palm leaf in his hand. He stood before Musailama (and his companions) and said, “If you asked me even this piece (of a leaf), I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid the fate you are destined to, by Allah. If you reject Islam, Allah will destroy you. I think that you are most probably the same person whom I have seen in the dream.”

• Ibn Ishaaq said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers who Musailama-al-Kadhdhab (the liar) sent.

Justice with non-Muslims:

• Ibn Abu Haddrd Aslami said, “I owed a Jew four dirhams, and I didn’t have any money to pay off my debt. The Jew complained to the Prophet, peace be upon him, so the Prophet asked me thrice to give him his money. Thus, I went to the market and sold the mantle I was wearing during winter for four dirhams.”(385).

• Said ibn al-Musayyab said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab judged a dispute between a Muslim and a Jew. Umar saw that the right belonged to the Jew. The Jew said to him, “By Allah! You have judged correctly.” So Umar ibn al-Khattab struck him with a whip and said, “How can you be sure.” The Jew said to him, “We find that there is no judge who judges correctly but that there is an angel on his right side and an angel on his left side who guide him and give him success in the truth as long as he is with the truth. When he leaves the truth, they rise and leave him.”(387)

• Az-Zuhari said, “A Jew came to Abdul Malik bin Marwan and said, “son of Hormuz, was unjust to me,” yet Abdul Malik bin Marwan did not pay any attention to him. The Jew repeated it thrice and said to him, ‘The Imam is an accomplice in any injustice as long as he doesn’t judge it’, and so Abdul Malik sent to son of Hormuz to judge the matter.”(387).

• Harith bin Abdul Muttalib said that a Jew came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, to take his money so the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave him his money(388).

• Irbad bin Saryah said, “I lent a young camel to the Messenger of Allah, and I came to ask him to repay me. He said, ‘Yes, I will only repay you with a superior she-camel.’ so he repaid me and repaid me well. Then a nomad came to him to ask to repay him a camel of a certain age, and the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Give him a camel of certain age.’ On that day they gave him a mature camel and he said, ‘This is better than my camel.’ He (The Prophet) Said, ‘ the best of you is the one who is best in repaying.”'(389)

• Abdullah bin Masud said, “Allah’s Messenger said, ‘Whoever takes an oath when asked to do so, in which he may deprive a Muslim of his property unlawfully, will meet Allah who will be angry with him.’ Al-Ash’ath informed me, “By Allah! This was said regarding me. There was a dispute about a piece of land between me and a man from the Jews who denied my right. I took him to the Prophet. Allah’s Apostle asked me, ‘Do you have evidence?’ I replied in the negative. He said to the Jew, ‘Take an oath.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Prophet! He will surely take an oath and take my property unjustly.” So Allah revealed in confirmation of this statement, “Verily! Those who Purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s Covenant and oaths, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter.”(390)

• Shurayh said, “Ali looked for his armor when he went to fight Maaouya, but couldn’t find it. When the battle ended and he returned to Kufa, he found a Jew selling his armor in the market. Ali told him that this is his armor and that he never sold nor gave him his armor, but the Jew refused to give him back his armor. Then Ali and the Jew went to judge Shurayh and told him what happened. The judge asked for evidence, and then Ali told him that his sons would testify, but the judge told him that a son’s testimony cannot be accepted. The Jew said, “The judge judges against Ali, the prince of the faithful! I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. This is actually your armor, it fell from you at night; while you were riding your camel and I took it.”(391).

• Yahya bin Mohammed said, “I attended Musa bin Ishak’s Council in the mosque. A Jew came seeking Musa’s arbitration, so Musa went to him and arbitrated between him and his friend, and managed to convince the Jew to convert to Islam.”(392).

• One of the Ansar who were on a conquest with the Prophet, peace be upon him, had his armor stolen. The man went to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and told him that Tohme bin Iberg stole his armor. Then the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered them to summon Tohme, yet the thief threw the armor in the house of an innocent Jew (to frame him), so that they would find the armor in that man’s house and accuse him of theft instead of Tohme. He asked some people of his clan to protect him and cover up for him. Thereupon, he and his friends went to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and told him that Tohme is innocent and that a Jew stole the armor, thus Allah revealed, “And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.”, “They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah, and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as he does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah, of what they do, encompassing.”

• Ibn Jarir al-Tabari said, “A man stole an iron armor, in the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and framed a Jew. The Jew said, “By God, I did not steal the armor Abu al-Qasim. Indeed the man who had stolen it placed it in my house to frame me.” The man’s friends tried to cover up for him by saying, “O Messenger of Allah, this Jew disbelieves in Allah!” Thus, Allah revealed, “And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.”, “Here you are – those who argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life – but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will [then] be their representative?”, ” But whoever earns an offense or a sin and then blames it on an innocent [person] has taken upon himself a slander and manifest sin.”(393)

Tolerance in Jihad:

The Prophet, peace be upon him, identified the provisions of Jihad in the Hadith narrated by Buraidah(394). And they are:

1. To not engage in any battle before calling people to Islam.

2. To not kill women, boys, civilians, and priests.

3. The prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

4. To fulfill promises and charters.

• Buraidah said: “When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent a commander of an army, he would exhort him concerning himself to be pious, and he would exhort him to be good to those who are with him among the Muslims. He would say: ‘Fight in the Name of Allah, in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah, and do not steal from the spoils of war or be treacherous, nor mutilate, and do not kill a child. When you meet your enemy among the idolaters, then call them to one of the three options or choices, whichever of them they respond to then accept it from them, and refrain from them. Call them to Islam, and to relocate from their land to the land of Emigrants. Inform them that if they do that, then they will have similar to what those who emigrated have, and from them will be required similar to what is required from those who have emigrated. And if they refuse to relocate, then inform them that they will be like the Bedouins among the Muslim, and they will be treated the same as Bedouins are treated. There is no war spoils or Fay’ for them, unless they fight along with the Muslims. If they refuse then seek aid from Allah against them and fight them. (395)

• Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to one of his governors, “It has been passed down to us that when the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent out a raiding party, he would say to them, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah, in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the booty, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.’ Say the same to your armies and raiding parties, Allah willing. Peace be upon you.” (396)

• Umar and Abu Baker used to say to their army, “‘Fight in the Name of Allah, in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah, and do not steal from the spoils of war or be treacherous, nor mutilate, and do not kill a child.”(397)

• Abu Al-Bakhtari said, “A Muslim Army, whose commander was Salman Al-Farisi, besieged one of the Persian castles. They said: ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said, ‘Leave me to call them (to Islam) as I heard the Messenger of Allah call them.’ So Salman went to them and said, ‘I am only a man from among you, a Persian, and you see that the Arabs obey me. If you become Muslims then you will have the likes of what we have, and from you will be required that which is required from us. If you refuse, and keep your religion, then we will leave you to it, and you will give us the Jizyah from your hands while you are submissive.’ He said to them in Persian, ‘And you are other than praiseworthy and if you refuse then we will equally resist you.’ They said, ‘We will not give you the Jizyah, we will fight you instead.’ So they said, ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said, ‘No. ‘So he called them to the same (things) for three days, and then he said, ‘Charge them.'” He said, “So we charged them, and we conquered the castle.”(398)

• Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Ali bin Abi Talib to some people and ordered him to not fight them until he calls them to Islam(399).

• Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, called people to Islam before fighting them.”(400).

• Abu ibn Ka’b said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked us whether we called some of the prisoners to Islam, or not. We said, ‘No’, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered us to release them and recited these two verses, “O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner.”,” And this Qur’an was revealed to me that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches.”(401).

• Khalid Bin Saeed said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to call people to Islam before fighting them, when he sent him to Yemen. (402)

• Abu Wael said that Khalid ibn al-Walid called the Persians to Islam, before fighting them. (403)

• Ibn ‘Umar said that a woman was found killed in one of the expeditions of the Messenger of Allah, so the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, rebuked that, and prohibited killing women and children. (404)

• Ibn Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade those who fought ibn Abi Huqayq (a treacherous Jewish clan from Madina) to kill women and children.”(405)

• Ibn Jareed said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, used to say to every raiding party he sent, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the booty, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.'(406)

• IbnAbaas said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to say to every raiding party he sent, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the spoils, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.”(407)

• Al-Aswad Bin Sare’ said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, prohibited the killing of children.(408)

• Amr ibn Al-Hamek said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, prohibited the killing of innocent non-Muslims.(409)

• Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered them to not kill children, women and the elderly.”(410)

• Rabah bin Rabi said that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent a man to Khalid ibn al-Walid to order him to not kill women, when a woman was found killed in one of the expeditions,”(411).

• Bakr bin Sawada said that the Muslim armies never attacked monks, for they have been ordered to not kill them. (412)

• Thabit Bin Hajaj Al-Kilabi said, “Abu Bakr ordered the people to not kill Priests.”(413).

• Mujahid said, “Muslim armies are not allowed to kill children in the war, women, or the elderly, they are also not allowed to burn food, palm trees, damage homes, or cut fruitful trees (414).

• Yahya ibn said, “Abu Bakr sent armies to Syria, and ordered Yazeed ibn Abi Sufyan, to not kill children in the war, women, or the elderly, and to not burn food, palm trees, damage homes, or cut fruitful trees (415).

• Yahya Al Ghassani said, “I wrote to Omar bin Abdul Aziz to ask him about this verse,” Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.”[Baqarah: 190]. He said, “Transgression refers to women and children.”(416).

• Khalid bin Ma’daan said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade mutilation.”(417)

• Makhoul said, ” The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, forbade mutilation.” (418)

• Musab bin Omair said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ordered his companions in the day of Badr, to be kind to prisoners, thus they gave me lunch, dinner and dates.”(419)

• Omar bin al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him, ordered Muslims to fulfill their covenants with non-Muslims.” (420)

• Talha bin Abdullah bin Khuzai said that Omar bin al-Khattab, ordered them to not break their promises with non-Muslims.” (421).

• Ibn Salamah said, “Omar bin Al-Khattab sent us a letter when we were in khanqan, and told us to not break our fast during the morning until the crescent appears clear to us, and told us that once we besiege a fortress, we must guarantee peoples’ safety, if they refrain from fighting and ask us for protection.” (422).

• Shafiq said, “Once a Muslim promises to protect another man, then he must fulfill his promise.”(423)

• Maimon Ben Mehran said, “Muslims must fulfill their promises with non-Muslims, and keep ties with non-Muslim relatives.” (424)

• Abdul Rahman ibn Yazeed said, “Salman’s army besieged a palace, and conquered it, thus the people sought protection so we gave them our oath of protection. We left a sick man in the palace and went back. Then an army from Basra, which did not know about our promise of protection, attacked the palace, killed the sick man, and took women and children as prisoners, so Salman said to them, “Take women and children back to the palace, and Omar will judge the matter of the murdered man.” (425).

• Ibn Surakha said, “Abu Abeida wrote to the people of DeirTtiyaaa, and told them that he will he ensure the protection of their blood, houses, churches, and wealth, as long as they fulfill their promise with Muslims.” (426)

• Mohammed bin Sooqah said, “I was sitting with Ata ibn Rabah, when a man came to him and told him that a man promised his clan a certain amount of money once they freed him, so Rabah ordered him to fulfill his promise and when he said they were non-Muslims, he still insisted that he must fulfill his promise.” (427)

• Abu Atiya Hamdani said that Omar bin al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave a non-Muslim clan his oath of protection. (428)

• Fadil Alriqashi said, “Omar offered his oath of protection to a Jewish city he besieged, thus they surrendered without a fight.”(429).

Tolerance in the Islamic Tax:

• Abu Raja Al-Khorasani said, “Omar bin Abdul-Aziz, sent a letter to Adi bin Ertah in Basra, and asked him to collect the Islamic tax from the non-Muslims who can pay it, and to exempt the old and poor non-Muslims from the Islamic tax, just like Omar bin Al-Kattab did.”(430)

• Ka’b ibn Alqamah said, “Arafa Bin Harith fought with Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl in Yemen, in the apostates battles. He passed by a Christian from the people of Egypt, and called him to Islam, but the Christian insulted the Prophet, peace be upon him. Arafa then complained to Amr ibn al-Aas who said, ‘We gave them our Oath of protection.’ Then Arafa siad, ‘Our oath of protection necessitates that we protect their houses, wealth and churches, as long as they fulfill their oath and not insult our Prophet, peace be upon him!’ Amribn al-Aas said, ‘That is true indeed'”(431).

• Abu al-Janoob said, “We have to protect the people who we have given our oath of protection to.”(432)

• Omar, May Allah be pleased with him, ordered Islamic tax collectors to exempt, women, the old and poor non-Muslims from the Islamic tax (433).

Part II

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate the tolerance of Islam:

Definition of Tolerance:

Tolerance is the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing, and includes forgiveness and lenience. (434-435)

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate the tolerance of Islam:

• Islam is a tolerant religion which relieved mankind of the burden and the shackles which were upon them, as Allah said, “And makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them.”[Al-Arraf: 157].

• Islam was tolerant with non-Muslims in many issues and provisions, and gave them their rights.

• The Mercy Islam calls for includes all human beings, as Allah said, ‘My mercy encompasses everything.”[Al-Arraf: 156].
The eminent scholar Sa’di said that Allah’s mercy encompasses everything: all creatures, and all humans, Muslims and non-Muslims. (436-437) Ibn Battal said, “Islam calls us to be merciful with Muslims and non-Muslims, and all creatures, to give them food and look after them.” (438).

Islam Teaches Muslims to be Merciful with non-Muslims:

A. The Prophet, peace be upon him, told his Companions that Allah only shows His Mercy to those who are merciful. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, we are all merciful.” He told them that they must be merciful with all people.

B. The Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to invoke Allah’s wrath upon non-Muslims when he was asked to, and told his Companions that he was sent as a mercy to mankind. Also, the Messenger, peace be upon him, invoked the Blessings of Allah upon the Mudar tribe, although it was a hostile tribe, when a man from Mudar came to him seeking water.

C. The Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed for non-Muslims’ well-being, and asked Allah to Guide them.

D. Muslims are allowed to give food to needy hostile non-Muslims, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to withhold wheat from Quraysh, as Thumamah narrated.

Islam is the Religion of Guidance:

A. Islam seeks to guide all people to the right path, for there are a lot of Hadiths that call Muslims to invite Jews, Christians, non-Muslim Kings, and non-Muslim people to Islam.

B. Islam called Muslims to invite non-Muslims with wisdom and kind exhortation, as Allah said, “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and kind exhortation, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.” [Al-Nahl: 125]. Ibn Kathir said, “Allah the Almighty commanded His Messenger Muhammad, peace be upon him, to invite people to Islam with wisdom (Qur’an and Sunnah) and kind exhortation, and to persuade them using rational debates.” (439-440). Ibn Kathir also said, “Allah asked mosses in this verse, ‘Speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear’ [Taha: 44] to speak to the arrogant Pharaoh with gentle speech, in order to win him over.” (441). The Prophet, peace be upon him, was also kind to Thumamah, and thus he converted to Islam due to the Prophet’s kindness.

C. Muslims should call non-Muslims to Islam through demonstrating the virtues of this religion, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, called Al-Waleed Bin Al-Mughirah to Islam, and recited this verse to him, “Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression.” [Al-Nahl: 90].

D. Muslims should send ambassadors to non-Muslims countries to call them to Islam.

E. To encourage the People of the Book to convert to Islam through indicating their twofold reward, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There are three who will be given a twofold reward: a man who has a slave woman whom he treats well and educates well, then he manumits her and marries her; a slave who fulfills his duty toward Allah and toward his master; and a believer from among the People of the Book.”

F. Muslims can address non-Muslim kings and leaders with reverence, as the Prophet peace be upon him, did with Heraclius.

G. Muslims may pray for non-Muslims’ guidance, as the Prophet peace be upon him, did with the tribes of Daws and Thaqif.

H. Muslims should be kind with non-Muslim ambassadors and delegations, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, did with the messengers of Najran.

I. Muslims can use non-Muslims’ inventions and methods, as long as they don’t violate the rules of Islam, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, used a ring to seal the messages he sent to non-Muslims since they didn’t accept unsealed messages.

Tolerance of belief and worship:

Allah said, “There shall be no compulsion in religion.” [Al-Baqarah: 256] Ibn Kathir said, “This verse emphasizes that no one is allowed to force anyone to convert to Islam, for some Ansar prior to Islam used to vow to convert their children to Judaism if they lived. However, the Bani Al-Nadeer Jews were exiled from Medinah after Islam, and some of the Ansar children went with them after they became Jews, then some parents said, ‘By Allah we will not allow them to go with them (i.e. we will not allow them convert to Judaism), then Allah the Almighty revealed this verse, ‘There shall be no compulsion in religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong.'” (442).

Islamic Law guarantees non-Muslims’ freedom of belief, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, allowed the Christian delegation of Najran to perform their Christian prayer. (443). Also, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave the people of Jerusalem his oath of protection, and ensured the safety of their wealth, churches, and lives. When Khalid Ibn Al-Walid conquered Syria, he signed a treaty with the Romans stipulating that Muslims would not destroy their churches, and that the Romans would not ring their church bells except for prayer (444). Moreover, Swaid Bin Muqrin gave the people of Dhustan and Gorgan his oath of protection, and ensured the safety of their wealth, religion, and lives. (445)

Likewise, lots of Muslim scholars stopped the Ottoman Sultan Selim I from exiling Jews and Christians from the Ottoman Empire, and told him that he was not allowed to exile Christians and Jews from their homes as long as they pay the Islamic poll tax (446). Also, Sultan Suleiman asked the Turkish governor of Jerusalem, to clean the Wailing Wall (which the Jews consider sacred), and to allow Jews to visit it, as stated in the July 1, 1967 issue of the official bulletin issued by the Government of Israel in Bombay entitled, “News from Israel.” (447).

The protection of treaty-makers:

• Muslims are required to protect treaty-makers, and may not subject them to injustice or oppression, as the Messenger of Allah upon, peace be upon him, and the caliphs commanded. Also, Abu Yusuf advised Harun to protect and look after treaty-makers, and to not subject them to injustice or oppression (448). And Imam Ouzai stopped Prince Saleh Bin Ali from exiling some treaty-makers from the Lebanon Mount, after the incident that took place between them (449).

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered us to be kind to slaves, be they Muslims or non-Muslims, and Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, forgave Abu Lu’lu’ah (his murderer), and ordered his heir to be kind with him.

The Sanctity of their Blood:

• Islam made the blood of treaty-makers inviolable, and warned Muslims of subjecting treaty-makers to oppression or injustice.

• Islam imposed a compensation payment upon whoever kills a treaty-maker by mistake, as Allah said, “And if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty – then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave.” Abu Bakr and Umar made the compensation payment of killing a Jew or a Christian the same as the compensation payment of killing a Muslim.

• Islam warned Muslims of treachery with Muslims or non-Muslims.

• Muslims must ensure the safety of all non-Muslims who enter Muslim countries, such as ambassadors, diplomats and traders.

The Sanctity of Property and Honor:

• All Muslim scholars have emphasized the sanctity of the funds and honor of non-Muslims. Hence, Muslims must ensure the safety of non-Muslims’ wealth, property, honor, and lives. Muslims have guaranteed the rights of non-Muslims in Islamic societies throughout the ages, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Whoever kills a treaty-maker shall not smell the scent of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.” (450).

• Islam calls Muslims to give treaty-makers their rights.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, called Muslims to protect non-Muslims’ honor.

• Islam calls Muslims to ensure the safety of non-Muslims’ property and wealth.

• Imam Al-Nawawi said, “Non-Muslims’ wealth is as inviolable as Muslims’ wealth.” (451). Ibn Hajar said, “Muslims should always be fair with Muslims and non-Muslims, and protect treaty-makers’ property and wealth.” (452).
Islam forbade Injustice and oppression:

• Islam forbade Muslims from subjecting non-Muslims to oppression and injustice, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Beware of the supplication of the oppressed as there is no screen between his supplication and Allah.” Shaykh Ibn Baaz said on his official website, “Muslims shall not subject non-Muslims or treaty-makers to oppression and injustice, for they are supposed to protect treaty-makers’ honor and property, and avoid treason and fraud.” (453).

• Islam forbids verbally abuse of non-Muslims.

• Islam called for the protection of non-Muslims’ honor. Shihabuddin Quraafi and Ibn Abidin said that Islam even forbids Muslims from verbally abusing non-Muslims and treaty-makers. (454-455).
The Fulfillment of Oaths and Covenants:

• Islam calls Muslims to fulfill covenants and charters, and warns them of revoking treaties, as Allah said, “Fulfill the covenant of Allah when you have taken it, and do not break oaths after their confirmation, while you have made Allah a Witness over you. Indeed, Allah knows what you do.” [An-Nahl: 91]. He also said, “Fulfill [every] commitment. Indeed, the commitment is ever [that about which one will be] questioned.” [Isra: 34]. “[those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous.” [Baqarah: 177]. Islam also forbade Muslims from helping other Muslims against treaty-makers and forbade them from revoking their treaties, as Allah said, “And if they seek your help in religion, then you must help them, except against a people who have a treaty with you. Allah is seeing of what you do.” [Anfal: 72]. “Excepting those of the idolaters with whom you have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfill their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him).” [Anfal: 72].

The Prophet, peace be upon him, himself fulfilled the convent he had with the non-Muslims and did not fight them. He also called Muslims to fulfill their covenants with non-Muslims (456), as he said, “On the Day of Judgment there will be a flag for every person guilty of the breach of faith. It will be raised in proportion to the extent of his guilt; and there is no guilt of treachery more serious than the one committed by the ruler of men.” (457).

• Accordingly, Islam regards the covenants with treaty-makers sacred, and warns Muslims of treason. Accordingly, the Islamic principle of “the sanctity of treaties in peace and war” has contributed to the stability of the Islamic nation, international peace, security, and increased the international trust in the Islamic nation. Moreover, Islamic tolerance with non-Muslims has always been emphasized in the Qur’an and Sunnah, the history of the Righteous Caliphs, the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Ottomans, the Mamluks, and others, whereby non-Muslim minorities have lived securely, practicing their religious rites while living with Muslims, unlike Muslim minorities who nowadays suffer from the oppression and the injustice of non-Muslim countries. (458).

• A Muslim is not allowed to assault a non-Muslim, as long as the non-Muslim is committed to the covenant and respects the Islamic laws. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to betray treaty-makers nor break their covenants, as Ibn Hajar said, for some Jewish and Christian minorities have lived in Muslim countries such as Egypt and Syria for centuries and are still protected by the Islamic society. (459).

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, fulfilled the Hudaibia peace treaty, which he made with the non-Muslims from Quraysh. Abu Jandal fled from Quraysh and came to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, after the treaty was signed, yet Quraysh insisted on taking Abu Jandal back, and when he refused to go back to Quraysh, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked him to go back and told him that he could not break the treaty he made with Quraysh nor betray them, and told him that Allah would save him. The Prophet, peace be upon him, also fulfilled the Taibieen covenant which he made with Quraysh before Islam.

• Islam regards the fulfillment of covenants a virtuous deed, whether with Muslims or non-Muslims, friends or foes. (460).
Bukhari included the following sections in his Saheeh:

A. Reconciliation with non-Muslims, and the sin that befalls whoever breaks covenants.

B. The merit of the fulfillment of covenants.

C. The Imam invokes Allah’s wrath upon whoever breaks his covenant.

D. Should Muslims forgive non-Muslims who revoked treaties?

E. The commandments of the protection of treaty-makers.

Ibn Taymiyah said, “Al-Bukhari narrated that Omar Bin Al-Khattab said in his speech after he was stabbed, ‘I advise my successor to abide by the rules and regulations concerning the ones protected by Allah and His Prophet (treaty-makers), to fulfill their contracts completely and fight for them and not to tax (overburden) them beyond their capabilities.'” The Prophet, peace be upon him said, “Whoever kills a person granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years.” (461).

Moreover, Abu Obeid said, “The Romans made peace with Mu’awiyah and asked him to pay them a certain amount of money, yet the Romans betrayed Muslims and revoked the treaty. However, Mu’awiya refused to kill the Roman hostages he had, and decided to release them, and said, ‘Fulfillment in the face of treason rather than betrayal for treason.'” (462).

• Muslims are not allowed to assault ambassadors and diplomats, for Ibn Al-Qayyim said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, never killed nor assaulted messengers and the delegations of his non-Muslim foes. He also said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, never forced Islam on anyone. He used to call people to Islam and he allowed whoever chose a religion other than Islam to follow and belong to his tribe. When Quraysh sent Abu Rafi as a messenger to the Prophet, peace be upon him, the Prophet called him to Islam and he decided to convert, yet the Prophet asked him to go back to Quraysh so as not to break his covenant or hold a messenger captive.

• Islam calls Muslims to fulfill their covenants with both friends and foes.
Ibn Al-Qayyim said, “The Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to make covenants with some non-Muslim enemies, and the Prophet did not disapprove of that.” (463).

• Muslims can make a truce with enemies, and may even request a truce if it benefits Muslims. Ibn Al-Qayyim said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make peace and hold a truce with non-Muslims in any time and place.” (465). He also said, “The Imam can even call for a truce with non-Muslims if it benefits Muslims.” (466). Ibn Hajar said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make peace and hold a truce with non-Muslims.” (467).

• Muslims can hold truces with non-Muslims at any time, for Bukhari compiled a chapter on reconciliation with non-Muslims for three days or a given time, and a chapter on reconciliation with non-Muslims for an uncertain time. Ibn Al-Qayyim said about the truce of Hudaibiya, “This truce indicates that Muslims and rulers are allowed to make a truce with non-Muslims for an uncertain period of time, as long as it benefits Muslims.” (468).

• Muslims can make alliances with non-Muslims, especially in the case of weakness or need, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, foretold that Muslims would make an alliance with the Romans one day.
The Establishment of International Relations:

• International relations in Islam are based on peace, cooperation and compassion, for Islam forbids aggression. Allah said, “O you, who believe, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.” [Al-Baqarah: 208]. He also said, “Cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Al-Maeda: 2]. “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.” [Baqarah: 190].

• Interest in international relations between Muslims and non-Muslims began in the Meccan stage, when the Prophet, peace be upon him, advised some of his Companions to emigrate to Abyssinia to flee from the injustice of Quraysh. This can be expressed as the Prophet seeking political asylum for his companions.

• When the Prophet, peace be upon him, established the Islamic state in Madinah, he sent messages to the major countries in the region (Byzantium, Persia, Egypt, Yemen and Abyssinia) to calls their leaders and people to Islam. After eighty years, the Islamic state became the largest empire in the region, stretching from India in the east to Spain in the West, and had common borders with many non-Muslim countries. Through time, the Islamic countries signed agreements and treaties with non-Muslim countries, which included commitments, rules, conditions and principles that contributed to the development of the international Islamic law.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, made treaties with non-Muslim groups after the establishment of the new Islamic state in Madina, such as the treaty of Hudaybiyah, which guaranteed that both parties wouldn’t attack each other, and thus spread security and peace in the Arabian Peninsula after the violent conflicts that had taken place between Muslims and Non-Muslims.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, made other treaties with the Jews and the Christians, who were living inside or outside of the Arabian Peninsula, namely, the treaty he made with the Christians of Najran, and the Fadak, Ayla and Taima Jews, which guaranteed non-Muslims’ independent rule from Madinah. Also, the Islamic poll tax was not mandatory in all agreements and treaties with the People of the Book, for the Madinah Treaty that took place between the Prophet and the Jews of Madinah was the first peaceful treaty that did not include the payment of the Islamic tax, and was more of a friendship treaty which regulated the relationship between the Jews and Muslims, and established security and peace, in addition to the treaty the Prophet, peace be upon him, made with the Damra and Ghaffar Jews, which was based on the same terms. (469).
Charity to non-Muslims:

• Islam called Muslims to be kind and compassionate with both Muslims and non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” Not upon you, [O Muhammad], is [responsibility for] their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills. And whatever good you [believers] spend is for yourselves, and you do not spend except seeking the countenance of Allah. And whatever you spend of good – it will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.” [Baqarah: 272]. “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. “[Mumtahina: 8], “And they give food in spite of love for it to the needy, the orphan, and the captive” [Al-Insan: 8]. And Asma’ bint Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “My mother came to me while she was still a polytheist, so I asked Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ‘My mother, who is ill-disposed to Islam, has come to visit me. Shall I maintain relations with her?’ He replied, ‘Yes, maintain relations with your mother'”.

• Imam Nawawi included in the book of alms the chapter of “Paying alms and charity to relatives, spouse, children, parents, even if they were non-Muslim”, which he has derived from the hadith of Abu Talha al- Ansari who wanted to donate his land, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, told him to donate it to his relatives.

• There is almost a consensus among Muslim scholars that Muslims are allowed to give charity to poor non-Muslims. Ibn Baaz also said in his official Web site, that Muslims are allowed to donate blood to non-Muslims, and that they will even be rewarded for this good deed. (470)

Arbitrating between non-Muslims and accepting their Testimony:

• Muslims are allowed to arbitrate between treaty-makers if they come seeking Islam’s arbitration, as Allah said, “And if you judge, judge between them with justice. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” [Al-Maeda: 42 ]

• Muslims are allowed to accept non-Muslims’ testimony, as Allah said, “O you who have believed, testimony [should be taken] among you when death approaches one of you at the time of bequest – [that of] two just men from among you or two others from outside if you are traveling through the land and the disaster of death should strike you. Detain them after the prayer and let them both swear by Allah if you doubt [their testimony, saying], “We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony of Allah. Indeed, we would then be of the sinful.” [Al-Maeda: 106]

Accepting their Intercession:

Muslims may accept the intercession of non-Muslims in some cases, for Prophet, peace be upon him, talked about the war prisoners of Badr saying, “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake.”

Greeting them and shaking hands with them:

• Muslims may greet Jews and Christians by saying peace upon those who follow guidance, as in the message of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Hercules.

• Muslims may greet the Council in which both Muslims and non-Muslims co-exist.

• They may greet them by waiving their hands, as IbnMas’ood did.

• They may greet them with the greetings they exchange with each other.

• Muslims may greet back no-Muslims, for Ibn Abbas said, “Greet back a Jew, a Christian, or a Megian, for Allah said, ” And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet [in return] with one better than it or [at least] return it [in a like manner]. Indeed, Allah is ever, over all things, an Accountant.” [An-Nisa: 86].

• Muslims may shake hands with non-Muslims as Sufian At-Thaori, Abdul Razzaq and other said.

• Muslims should be kind to whoever is kind, for Ibn Abbas said that he would even be kind to Pharaoh had he been kind to him.

• Muslims should be kind to non-Muslim friends, for Ibn Mas’ood said that he and Alqamah came back from Hira with some non-Muslims, and when they were about to part ways, Alqama greeted them and told IbnMas’ood that they are their travel companions and that they have the right to be greeted.

Asking them for Permission:

• Islam emphasized that the teachings of Islam include both Muslims and non-Muslims.

• Islam ordered Muslims to ask both Muslims and non-Muslims for permission, for Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said, “Muslims are not allowed to enter non-Muslims’ places without asking their permission”.

Honoring non-Muslims:

• Muslims should be kind and generous with non-Muslims, feed them and honor them, as IbnHajar said in his book “High demands”.

• Muslims may call non-Muslims by their nick-names.

The Permissibility of Eating the Slaughters of the People of the Book:

• Eating the Sacrifices and the foods of the people of the book is lawful in Islam, as Allah said, “This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.”[Al-Maeda: 5].

• Eating the foods of Non-Muslims (except for meat) is lawful in Islam, for companions ate the cheese which was made by the Magi.

Buying and Selling and other Transactions:

• Islam allowed Muslims to deal with non-Muslims in financial transactions, for Ibn Hibbaan included in his book, the chapter of “The permissibility of Selling and Buying from non-Muslims”, and Bukhari included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Employing a non- Muslim when necessary”, and the chapter of “The partnership between Muslims and non-Muslims in farming”. Ibn al-Qayyim also said about Selling and Buying from non-Muslims, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, bought a merchandize from a Jew, and mortgaged his armor to a Jew for thirty ‘Wasak’ of barley, thus this indicates that selling and buying from non-Muslims, and other financial transactions are lawful.” (471).

• Mortgage, loan, partnership with non-Muslims and other transactions are all permissible in Islam, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, mortgaged his armor to a Jew. Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to deal with non-Muslims in financial transactions, such as, Mortgage, loan, partnership and other transactions. Also, scholars believe that the Prophet, peace be upon him mortgaged his armor to a Jew in order to teach Muslims that Islam allows them to carry out financial transactions with non-Muslims.”(472).

• Muslims may also be employed by non-Muslims, since Ali worked for a Jew.

• Muslims may also travel to non-Muslim countries for trade and work.

• Muslims may intercede for non-Muslims

• They may trust sincere non-Muslims, for Ibn Hajar said about the Hudaibiya treaty, “This treaty indicates that Muslims are allowed to trust and take the advice of steadfast and trustworthy non-Muslims.”Ibn Taymiya and Ibn Khattabi said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Khuza’a, a non-Muslim, as a spy and trusted him in what he reported and took his advice, for the Khuza’a had always supported the Prophet”(474). Ibn Taymya Also said, “Abu Talib used to protect and defend the Prophet, peace be upon him, which proves that there are a lot of trustworthy non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75].Therefore, Muslim are allowed to entrust steadfast non-Muslims with their money and other financial transactions.” (475). Ibn al-Qayyim said, “This Hadith indicates that Muslims are allowed to cooperate with trustworthy non-Muslims in Jihad in order to conquer their enemy.” (476)

Using and Learning their Science and Knowledge:

Judamat al-Asadiyyah said that she heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, Say, “I intended to (ghailah) during pregnancy, but I considered the Greeks and the Persians, and saw that they practiced it without any injury being caused to their children thereby. Malik said, ‘Ghailah means that a man has intercourse with his wife while she is suckling a child’. Thus, this indicates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, resorted to the knowledge of the Romans although they were non-Muslims.
In addition, when the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, consulted Omar Ibn al Khattab, about what to do with funds, Khalid bin al-Walid said that the kings of Levant used to write down the funds in a Diwan “Document”, thus Omar took his advice. (477) Alusi said, “Muslims are allowed to use non-Muslims’ knowledge, and to employ non-Muslims in other than governmental positions.” (478)

Treatment and Medication:

Muslims may exchange experiences and doctors with non-Muslims, for IbnTaymiya said, “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent Khuza’a, a non-Muslim, as a spy and trusted him in what he reported and took his advice, for the Prophet trusted the Khuza’a tribe since it always supported him, which proves that there are a lot of trustworthy non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]” [Al-Imran: 75].Therefore, Muslim are allowed to entrust steadfast non-Muslims with their money and other financial transactions and use their medication.” (479)
Ibn al-Qayyim said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, used Ibn al-Arkat as a guide in the time of migration when he was a disbeliever, which indicates that Muslims are allowed to resort to the help of non-Muslim doctors.”(480)

Learning their Language:

Muslims may learn non-Muslims’ language, for the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, asked Zaid ibn Thabit to learn Jews’ language.

The Rights of non-Muslim neighbors:

• There are three types of neighbors, a non-Muslim neighbor who has one right which is the right of a neighbor, and a Muslim neighbor who has two rights, the right of a neighbor and the right of a Muslim, and the relative Muslim neighbors, who has three rights, the right of a neighbor and the right of a Muslim, and the right of the relative.

• Islam enjoined kindness to neighbors, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, called Muslims to be kind to neighbors, and this order includes non-Muslim neighbors. Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in his official website, about Muslims’ duty towards non-Muslims, “Muslims should also be kind to non-Muslim neighbors, advise them, give them gifts, and give them charity if they are poor.”

Mingling with non-Muslims:

Muslims may mingle and interact with the people of the book and other non-Muslims for religious needs, such as to call them to Islam, sell and buy from them, and arbitrate between them. Ibn Hibbaan included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims”, and Ibn al-Qayyim said, “The Prophet, peace be upon him, received the delegation of Najran in the mosque, and this indicates that Muslims can allow non-Muslims to enter the Mosques so that they could listen to the Quran, especially if they seek their conversion to Islam.”(481-482). He said, “This story indicates that Muslims may enter reasonable debates with the People of the Book in order to persuade them to convert to Islam.”(483)
Ibn Hajar said about the Hudaibiya treaty, “”This treaty indicates that Muslims are allowed to trust and take the advice of steadfast and trustworthy non-Muslims, and seek non-Muslim doctors.”(484) and the Prophet, peace be upon, mingled with Jews in Madina, called them to Islam, and bought goods from them.

Visiting Non-Muslim Patients:

Muslims may visit non-Muslim sick friends and colleagues, for Ibn al-Qayyim said about visiting non-Muslim patients, “Someone asked Abu Abdullah about visiting a sick Christian man. He said, ‘You may visit him, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, visited a sick Jew.’ And Abu Masood Alosbhana said, ‘I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal about visiting a sick Christian neighbor? He said, ‘Yes you may visit him'” (485)

Praying for their guidance:

Muslims may pray for non-Muslims’ guidance and well-being as stated in the previous Hadiths.

Visiting the Graves of non-Muslims:

Muslims may visit the graves of non-Muslim relatives, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, visited his mother’s grave.

Accepting their Gifts:

• Muslims mayexchange gifts with non-Muslims and accept their gifts as well, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, accepted the gifts of Cyrus and other kings. Also, The Bukhaari included in his ‘Sahih”, the chapter of “Accepting gifts from delegations”, and the chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”. And Abu Dawood included in his “Sunan”, the chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”.

• Muslims may send gifts to non-Muslims, for Omar Al-Khattab sent a gift to his non-Muslim brother.

Kinship:

• Allah ordered Muslims to keep ties with their relatives, albeit Muslims or non-Muslims, as Allah said, ” Say (O Muhammad, unto mankind): I ask of you no fee therefor, save loving kindness among kinsfolk. And whoso scored a good deed we add unto its good for him.” Ibn Katheer said, “This verse calls the non-Muslims of Quraish to be kind to the Prophet, peace be upon him, since they had kinship with the Prophet.” (486)

• Muslims can keep ties with their non-Muslim relatives, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “But they (that family) have kinship (Rahm) with me and I will be good and dutiful to them.” And Al-Bukhari included in his “Sahih” the chapter of “Being dutiful to non-Muslim parents.

Befriending the people of the book:

The Prophet, peace be upon him, and the companions used to wish for the Romans’ victory since they are the people of the Book, as Allah the Almighty said, “The Romans have been defeated in the nearer land, and they, after their defeat will be victorious, Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice” [Ar-Room: 1-5], while Quraish wanted the Persians to victor since there were idolaters just like then.

Congratulating Non-Muslims:

Non-Muslims are allowed to congratulate non-Muslims for a newborn, marriage or others, and Ibn al-Qayyim said in the chapter of congratulating non-Muslims for a newborn, marriage or others, “Ahmed allowed it, yet prohibited it later on, however Muslims are allowed to congratulate non-Muslims as long as they don’t congratulate them for religious matters. For Congratulating non-Muslims on their religious festivals and holidays is a taboo by consensus.” (487)
Attending their Funerals:

Muslims may attend the funerals of non-Muslims, for Ibn al-Qayyim said in the chapter of “Attending their Funerals, “Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila said, ‘Sahl bin Hunaif and Qais bin Sa’d bin ‘Ubadah were in Al-Qadisiyyah when a funeral passed by them, so they stood up and it was said to them, ‘It is one of the local people.’ They said, ‘A funeral passed the Messenger of Allah and he stood up, and it was said to him, ‘It Is a Jew’s’. He said, ‘Is it not a soul?'”.

Muhammad Bin Musa said that Abdullah told him that a Muslim may attend the funeral of a non-Muslim, for al-Harith Ibn AbiRabi’a attended his mothers’ funeral. And Hanbal said, “Abu Abdullah told me that a Muslim is allowed to attend the funeral of his non-Muslim relative.”(488)

Consoling non-Muslims:

Muslims may console non-Muslims, for Ibn al-Qayyim, said in the chapter of consoling non-Muslim, “Hareem said, ‘I heard Al-Ajlah console a Christian, by saying, ‘Be patient’. And Al-Athram said, ‘Ibrahim said, ‘If you wish to console the people of the book, then say, ‘May Allah increase your wealth and children, and prolong your life’. And Harb said that Isaac told him that a Muslim can console a non-Muslim by saying, ‘ May Allah increase your wealth and children’ “(489).
Also, Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in his official website about loyalty and disavowal, “Muslims are allowed to console non-Muslims” (490).

Bequeathing non-Muslims:

• A Muslim is not allowed to inherit a non-Muslim, and vice versa, as the Prophet, peace be upon him, demonstrated.

• A Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim relative, for al-Bukhari included in the Book of Commandments, the chapter of “Bequeathing a non-Muslim relative”. And Qatada and Atta said that a Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim relative, for Allah said, “Except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest].”

Marriage with the People of the Book:

• Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Islam allowed Muslim men to marry the women of the people of the book, for Allah said, “And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you.”[Al-Maeda: 5] (491)

Narrating their Stories:

Muslims may narrate the stories of the people of the book, for Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Relate traditions from the children of Israel; there is no harm.”
Kindness to non-Muslims:
Islam called Muslims to be kind to peaceful non-Muslims, and to also be dutiful to non-Muslim parents, as Allah said, “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.” [Mumtahina: 8-9]. ” But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me [in repentance]”[Luqman: 15]. Asma daughter of Abu Bakr reported, ‘I said to the Messenger of Allah, my mother, who is inclined or scared has come to me. Should I treat her well? He said, ‘Yes’. And Quraafi said that Muslims should be kind to peaceful non-Muslims and pray for their guidance. (492)

Accepting their Invitation:

Muslims may accept non-Muslims’ invitations to weddings and feasts, for the Prophet, Peace be upon him, accepted a Jew’s invitation to barley and bread.

Freeing non-Muslim Slaves:

Islam enjoined kindness to slaves and urged Muslims to free them.

Pardoning non-Muslims for their Misdeeds:

• Islam called Muslims to pardon non-Muslims’ misdeeds, for Ibn Katheer and Mujahed said about the verse, “And you will still observe deceit among them, except a few of them. But pardon them and overlook [their misdeeds]. Indeed, Allah loves the doers of good. “, “Allah the exalted called the Prophet, peace be upon him, to pardon non-Muslims and overlook their misdeeds.”(493)

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, pardoned the Jews who greeted him with,” ‘As-Samu ‘alaikum (Death be upon you)”, and the Jewish woman who poisoned him, and the Jew who cast a spell on him. Also, Khubayb, who was captured and imprisoned by non-Muslims, did not kill nor hurt the non-Muslim child, although he already knew that his parents would kill him.

• The Islamic nation has always ensured the rights of non-Muslim minorities throughout the ages, despite the injustice and oppression that some Muslim minorities were subjected to in some non-Muslim countries. For example, when the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem, they massacred about 70 thousand Muslims, including children and women, and old men. However, Saladin who regained Jerusalem from their hands after 90 years of this massacre; did not hurt nor kill the 100 thousand Christians who lived there. He even allowed them to go back to their countries, and gave them his oath of protection.(494)

Justice with non-Muslims:

Allah called Muslims to be just to non-Muslims albeit friends or foes, for Allah said, “Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct.”[An-Nahel: 90], “And do not let the hatred of a people for having obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram lead you to transgress.” [Al-Maeda: 2]. Also, Ibn Rawahah who was sent to the Jews by the Prophet, peace be upon him, to count their palm trees, said to the Jews, “My hatred for you would not prevent me from being just to you.”
In addition, Ali Ibn abi Taleb asked the Islamic governors and Islamic-tax collectors to be kind to non-Muslim treaty-makers, to overlook their misdeeds, to collect the Islamic-tax from wealthy non-Muslims, and to exempt needy non-Muslims from the tax. (495)

Tolerance in Jihad:

• Jihad for the sake of Allah is the means Muslims resort to in order to face the enemies who oppress non-Muslims, and stand in the face of the call to Islam, for Allah said, “Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.”[Baqarah: 216], ” Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.” [Baqarah: 193], “It is He who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion, although they who associate others with Allah dislike it.” [At-Taowba: 33].

• Jihad in Islam is safeguarded by the provisions and the rules which the Prophet, peace be upon him, demonstrated in the hadith narrated by Buraidah (496).

• Abu Bakr advised the Muslim armies to not mutilate nor kill a small child, an old man, a woman, monks and priests, and to not cut fruit trees, and to not kill sheep, cows or camels. (497)

• Omar Ibn al-Khattab, also advised Muslim armies to not mutilate nor kill a child, an old man, a woman, monks and priests (498).

• Jihad includes the following provisions:

1. The Prohibition of the killing of women, children, old men, and priests.

2. The Prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

3. The Prohibition of fighting before calling people to Islam.

4. Kindness to prisoners.

5. The fulfillment of promises and covenants.

6. The Prohibition of killing messengers and ambassadors.

Ibn al-Qayyim said about Buraydah’s Hadith, “This Hadith indicates that Muslim armies are not allowed to break Covenants, nor mutilate or kill children, old men, women, monks and priests. This Hadith also indicates that Muslims are supposed to call non-Muslims to Islam before fighting them; however Muslims are allowed to fight non-Muslims without calling them to Islam once they transgress. (499)

Moreover, Amr ibn al-Aas called the people of Egypt to Islam before fighting them, and asked his soldiers to not Hasten to a fight before calling them to Islam. Thus, Amr ibn al-Aas called the priests of Egypt to Islam and told them that the Prophet, peacebe upon him, ordered Muslims to be kind to the people of Egypt since they have the right of kinship upon them. Amr also promised to give them his oath of protection if they agree to pay the Islamic tax.” (500). Ibn al-Qayyim also said about the Hadith of the conquest of Mecca, “The Messenger, peace be upon him, did not kill the messengers whom Quraish sent, although Quraish broke the covenant, which indicates that Muslims are not allowed to kill the messengers of non-Muslims.” (501-502)

Also, the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not kill nor harm the messengers of king Khusro, although they came to capture the Prophet, peace be upon him, and he also pardoned the messengers of Musailama the liar.

Tolerance in the Islamic-tax:

• Muslims are not allowed to force non-Muslims to convert to Islam, hence Islam called Muslims to allow non-Muslims to practice their religion and to protect them as long as non-Muslims pay the Islamic-tax, and are committed to the covenant, Allah said, “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] religion.” [Baqarah: 256]

• Muslims are not allowed to enjoin the Islamic-tax on needy or old non-Muslims, for al-Qurtubi said (503), “Muslims are supposed to exempt non-Muslim women, children, old men and priests from the Islamic-tax, and should only collect it from non-Muslim fighters, for Allah said, ” Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled.” [At-Taowba: 29].(504)

• Muslims are not allowed to collect the Islamic-tax from non-Muslims by force or torture if they are not able to pay it, as Ibn al-Qayyim said.(505)

• The Islamic State should look after the poor and needy non-Muslims, for
Omar bin al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him, saw an old Jew asking people for charity, so he asked him, “Why are asking people for charity?” He replied, “I’m an old Jewish man and I need money to pay the Islamic-tax.” Thus, Omar ordered the tax collector to pardon old men and needy non-Muslims from the Islamic-tax, (506).
Also, Khalid ibn al-Walid and Omar bin Abdul-Aziz, ordred tax collectors to pardon needy and old non-Muslims from the tax, and paid for the expenses of needy non-Muslims (507). And Omar, May Allah be pleased with him, asked the government to pay for the expenses of the poor non-Muslims of Damascus. “Hence, Social Security in Islam, is a general principle that includes all the members of society, albeit Muslims or non-Muslims, and thus the Islamic government is supposes to provide food, clothing, shelter, or treatment for all community members.(508)

• Muslims are supposed to protect non-Muslims and ensure their rights, for
Abu Abeida may Allah be pleased with him, returned back the Islamic-tax to the non-Muslims of Levant, when he could not protect them against their enemies, and said, “We are supposed to collect the tax in order to protect you, but since we could not protect you, we must return the tax back to you.” (509). and al-Quraafi said, “Muslims are supposed to fight with non-Muslim treaty-makers against their enemy, since Muslims gave treaty-makers their oath of protection.”(510)

• The Islamic nation must try to free non-Muslim treaty-makers who fall in the hands of the enemy, and pay their ransom. (511), for Ibn Taymiyah asked the Tatar commander “Qtalucheh” to free both the Muslim and non-Muslim prisoners, yet the commander agreed to only free the Muslim prisoners, however Ibn Taymiyyah told him that all non-Muslim prisoners are part of the Islamic nation and that he must release them.
Conclusion:

This research can be summarized in the following points:

1. Islam is the religion of tolerance, and this feature of Islam is not shared by any other religion.

2. Islam’s tolerance includes non-Muslims since Islam ensured the rights of non-Muslims.

3. Islam is keen to guide all people to righteousness.

4. Islam called Muslims to not force anyone to convert to Islam, and to allow non-Muslims to practice their religion.

5. Islam warned Muslims of subjecting the People of the Book and treaty-makers to oppression and injustice.

6. Islam protected non-Muslims’ properties through the imposition of compensation upon whoever assaults a treaty-maker.

7. Muslims May not oppress nor harm non-Muslims.

8. Islam called Muslims to fulfill their promises and covenants, and warned them of breaking their covenants.

9. International Relations in Islam are based on peace, cooperation and compassion.

10. Islam called Muslims to be kind to non-Muslims.

11. Eating the slaughters of the People of the Book is permissible in Islam.

12. Muslims may sign financial contracts with non-Muslims.

13. Muslims may interact and mingle with non-Muslims.

14. The relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in Islam is based on compassion and kindness.

15. Islam called Muslims to pardon non-Muslims’ misdeeds.

16. Islam urged Muslims to look after poor non-Muslims and provide for them, and to protect them from any internal or external assaults.

17. Jihad in Islam is safeguarded by the provisions and the rules which the Prophet, peace be upon him set. And They are as follows:

• The Prohibition of the killing of women, children, old men, and priests.

• The Prohibition of treachery and mutilation.

• The Prohibition of fighting before calling people to Islam.

• Kindness to prisoners.

• The fulfillment of promises and covenants.

• The Prohibition of killing messengers and ambassadors.
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Index of Elevated Hadiths:

• Allah the Exalted has (solved your case), Bilal 197.

• “Did you hear what they said?, They said “(Poison)Death be upon you”, Anas 316.

• Fear the prayer of the oppressed even from an infidel, Anas 94.

• Gather the Jews Here, Abu Huraira 311.

• Embark in the name of Allah, and then fight in the way of Allah, who disbelieves in God, Ibn Abbas 352.

• Hide it, Suraqa 310.

• My covenant, Amer bin Abdullah 53.

• They are your brothers, so help them 60.

• Stand up if you see a funeral, Jaber 281.

• I remind you of Allah who rescued you of Pharaoh 236.

• Go, you are free 320.

• Anyone who has these four traits is a hypocrite, Ibn Amr 113.

• Send him Omar, Aden Amir 323.

• Feed your slaves, Yazeed bin Jariya 59.

• Did you drink enough, Abu Basra 295.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, and Abu Bakr rented a guide from Bani ad-Daiel, Aisha 199.

• Treat prisoners kindly, Abu Aziz 364.

• Convert to Islam; He said it to the Jew, Anas 229.

• Convert to Islam and you shall be safe, Anas 42.

• Convert to Islam and you shall be safe, He said it to Abu Khafa 41.

• The prisnors’ food, 134.

• Give him his right, Ibn Abi Haddrd 330.

• The Messenger of Allah gave Khaybar Jews a piece of land; so that they would plant it, Ibn Omar, 196.

• Pardon him seventy times every day, Ibn Umar, 57.

• I call you to preform prayer and pay alms, 68.

• Invade in the name of Allah, Buraidah 340.

• May Allah increase your wealth and children, Ibrahim, Hadith Mursal 232.

• By Allah I was given the book, al-Mikdam 85.

• No one is allowed to take treaty-makers’ money, Khaled 88.

• Who oppresses a treaty-maker, 84.

• Whoever kills a Mu’ahid that has a covenant from Allah, Abu Huraira 64.

• Have you got any evidence, Ibn Ashath 149.

• Isn’t it a soul?, Sahl ibn Hanif 282.

• The fruit of the wall of so and so, 204.

• By Allah, I would tell you about it, Hudhayfah 251.

• By Allah, only if Apostles did not kill, Naim, 107.

• We were ordered to greet the people of the book with, and upon you too, Anas 176.

• Accept their kindness and forgive their misdeeds, age 61.

• Asaad bin Zaraarah headed with Mus’ab bin Amir to the house of Bani Abdul Ashhal, 34.

• My name is Mohammed, who my family called me by, Thawbaan 242.

• Akidr Doma gave to the Prophet, peace be upon him, a gift, Anas 258.

• Al Abi are not my friends, Amr ibn al-Aas 269.

• Praise be to Allah, we praise Him and seek His help, Ibn Abbas 322.

• Amulets and love charms, Ibn Mas’ood 224.

• Allah sent me as a mercy to all people, al-Maosoor 43.

• Allah made peace a salute to our nation, Abu Umaamah 159.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, did not belong to the branches of Quraish, Ibn Abbas 268.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, Wada al- Amrien, 72.

• The Prophet bought food from a Jew, Aisha 203.

• Waleed bin al-Mugeera came to the Messenger of Allah, and the Prophet recited the Quran to him, Ibn Abbas, 23.

• Some Jews came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, while he was sitting, Abu Huraira 245.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, saw the corpse of a woman who had been slain in one of the raids, 349.

• Khalid ibn al-Walid in Gmam, al-Maosoor 100.

• A man of the disbelievers wrote a letter to the Messenger of Allah, 172.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, sent them to Ibn Abi Hakeek, 350.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, stoned a Jewish man and a woman, Ibn Omar 147.

• The Messenger of Allah, wrote to Caesar, Ibn Abbas, 10.

• The Messenger of Allah sent Haatib ibn Abi Balta’ah to Muqawqis, Abdullah bin Abdul Kare’e, 30.

• The Messenger of Allah wrote to Najran before Surah an-Namel was revealed, 40.

• Rakana wrestled the Prophet peace be upon him, and the Prophet won, 33.

• The disbelievers of Quraish came to Madina to pay the prisoners’ ransom, 297.

• The king of Yemen sent a gift to the Prophet, peace be upon him, Anas 262.

• The Prophet, peace be upon him, wrote to Chosroes and Caesar, Anas 12.

• He took my sowrd, Jaber 321.

• This man wants to betray me, 325.

• It is better for them if they converted to Islam, Etaab 48.

• Eat in other utensils if you find other utensils, Abu Thalaba 227.

• The Hawazin delegation conveted to Islam and came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, 315.

• A Jew came to the Prophet and said, ” “You are setting up rivals (to Allah)”, Kateela 250.

• A Jew invited the Messenger of Allah to barley bread, Anas 299.

• A Jewish woman gave Prophet, peace be upon him, a poisoned sheep, Anas 312.

• I’m the first one who had fulfilled the covenant, Ibn Albilmana 74.

• We will be approaching some Jews, so do not greet them first, Abu Basra 175.

• We need this more than you Omar, Abdullah bin Salam 198.

• Are you Wahshi?, 109.

• Get down Abu Wahab, az-Zuhari 185.

• Go back, we will fulfill our covenant and ask Allah for help, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman 99.

• They went to the Jews, Abu Huraira .14

• Embark in the name of Allah, and in Allah’s religion, Anas 355.

• You are a man suffering from heart sickness, Saad 223.

• You cannot do this today, Qais bin Numan 254.

• You would soon conquer Egypt and that is a land which is known (as the land of al-qirat), Abu Dhar 52.

• “Silk (clothes) is worn only by him who has no share in the Hereafter.” Ibn Omar 255.

• After me there will be rulers, Asim 118.

• The Messenger of Allah, used to give them a place to sit in,184.

• They are tormented in their graves with a torment that the animals hear, Aisha 259.

• I do not break oaths, Abu Rafie 110.

• I swear by Allah, I do not trust Jews in respect of writing for me, Zaid ibn Thabit 221.

• I have not been sent as the invoker of curse, but” I have been sent as mercy. Abu Huraira 1.

• The Coptic Muqawqis sent a present to the Prophet of Allah, Buraidah 263.

• Muqawqis owner of Alexandria sent a present to the Messenger of Allah, Aisha 265.

• Fulfill the covenants of treaty-makers, Ibn Amr 98.

• The sons of disbelivers, Aswad bin Saree 353.

• Whoever gives a man his oath of protection and then kills him, Amr ibn Hamak 354.

• It is wining money, Anas 142.

• In the name of Allah the Merciful, to the Alokie of Hadramout, Masrook bin Wael 24.

• In the name of Allah the Merciful, from Muhammad bin Abdullah and His Messenger to Hercules, Ibn Abbas, 11.

• In the name of Allah, do not reach extremes, Gareer 351.

• The Messenger of Allah sent a troop of ten soldiers, Abu Huraira 324.

• “Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?”, Abdul Rahman bin Abu Bakr, 82.

• Be kind to people, Abdul-Rahman bin Aez 18.

• You will make a secure peace with the Byzantines, then you and they will fight an enemy behind you, and you will be victorious, take booty, and be safe.

• Three will receive their reward twice, Abu Musa 22.

• A rabbi came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Muhammad, we find”, Ibn Massoud 248.

• Measure for him fully, Jaber 213.

• Sweat flooding of thier skin, Zaid ibn Arqam 239.

• Relate traditions from the children of Isra’il; there is no harm, Abu Huraira 291.

• Abu Bakar went out in a trade journey to Bosra, Umm Salamah 209.

• A man from Bani Saham went out with Tamim Dari, Ibn Abbas 151.

• I went one day from the house of the Messenger of Allah, Ali .201

• Let me call them to Islam like the Messenger of Allah did, Salman 343.

• The compensation money for the treaty-maker is half the ransom money of a free man, I’m Amr 76.

• There will be people who will have (sign) a covenant with you, so whoever kills man of them, 69.

• I witnessed the Taibeen alliance with my cousins, Abdul Rahman bin Auf 96.

• The Messenger of Allah mad peace with the people of Najran, Ibn Abbas 122.

• Prayer, Pray fear Allah in (your slaves), Ali 301.

• Prayer, Pray fear Allah in (your slaves), Ali 54.

• I knew that if I started (to do that) with my people, then I will see from them, Ali 16.

• “So eat of that [meat] upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you are believers in His verses.” “And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned”, Ibn Abbas 188.

• I answered your request, Anas and Ibn Abbas 243-244.

• Say and upon you too, Anas 180.

• I signed a treaty with Umaya Bin Khalaf, in which he promised to protect me, Ibn Auf 214

• The Prophet and the people of the book, Ibn Abbas 274.

• A man stole iron armor at the time of the Prophet, 339.

• The Messenger of Allah gave treaty-makers of charity, Jabir bin Zaid 146.

• Some of the Badr prisoners were not able to pay their ransom, Ibn Abbas 220.

• The prophet, peace be upon him, used to talk about the children of Israel, Ibn Amr 292.

• He ordered us to give charity to Muslims, Ibn Abbas 132.
I had my share of the spoils, Ali 205.

• They hated to submit to their clan, Ibn Abbas 131.

• Huge, Sahl ibn Abi Hathmah 111.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, ruled that every clan should take part in paying the blood money, Jaber 129.

• The Messenger of Allah wrote made a treaty between immigrants and supporters and included the Jews in it, 130.

• He wrote to the people of Geraba and Odhirh, and said, “In the name of Allah the Merciful”, 120.
He wrote, “He knows that I’m the most pious”, Aisha 318.
You lied, what came between you and Islam(prevented you from converting) three things, 187.

• Eat in the name of Allah, Sahl bin Sa’d 207.
We did not kill the non-Muslim traders at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Jaber 81.

• We used to share the spoils at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Abdul Rahman bin Abzi, 206

• I am a Persian from the people Isfahaan, Salman 267.

• I was once in the land which the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave to Abu Salamah, Umm Salamah 226.

• He who lacks sincerity has no faith, Anas 124.

• No, I will wait, Ibn Abbas 2.

• Allah does not open the doors of repentance and compassion to them, Ibn Abbas 3.

• No, it is a loan with a guarantee of their return, Safwan bin Umaya 212.

• Do not fight them until you call to Islam, Anas 344.

• There is no alliance in Islam, Jubair bin Mute’m 97.

• There is no transitive disease, no huma, no star promising rain, no Safar, Abu Umaamah 71.

• Be dutiful to your father, Abu Huraira 313.

• No disbeliever will enter our mosque after this year, Jaber 117.

• I will give the flag tomorrow to a man, Sahl bin Sa’d 20.

• You might fight some people and win, 87.

• Your tribe has troubled me a lot, Aisha 4.

• I intended to prohibit ghila, Jaddama 222.

• Everyone who breaks a covenant will have a flag by his buttocks on the Day of Resurrection, Anas and Abu Saeed 115 – 116.

• “Why did you hit his face?” Abu Huraira 95.

• When the Prophet, peace be upon him, wanted to write a letter to the Romans, Anas 13.

• Ihna bin Rabh came to the Messenger of Allah, when he was in Tabuk, 119.

• Juhaina came to the Messenger of Allah, when he was in Madina, Saad bin Abi Waqas 104.

• The brrought Al-Abbas on the day of Badr, Jaber 296.

• When the verse, “The Byzantines have been defeated” was revelead, Nayyar bin Makram 275.

• When the verse “So if they come to you, [O Muhammad], judge between them or turn away from them” was revealed, Ibn Abbas 150.

• He said to Muder, “You are bold”, Ibn Mas’ood 5.

• (Look after your slaves), Abu Umaamah 58.

• “O Allah guide Thageef”, Jaber 19.

• Allah (raise) Islam with these two men, Ibn Omar 17.

• O Allah bring their hearts (make them convert to Islam), Anas 18.
• “O Allah! Give guidance to the Daus (tribe) and bring them (to Islam)!”
, Abu Huraira 9.

• “O Allah, beautify him”, Qatada, elevated Hadith 234.

• “If only you went to Abyssinia”, 125.

• “Had Al-Mut`im bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these people”, Jubair bin Mute’m 157.

• “I would have hit your neck were you not a messenger”, 108.

• “What do you find in the Torah regarding stoning”, Ibn Omar of 156.

• “Whatever the people of the Book tell you, do not verify them, nor falsify them”, Abu Namla 247.

• “Gabriel kept on recommending that I treat my neighbours well”, Ibn Amr 225.

• What would you do, Ibn Abbas,273.

• “What have you got O Thumaamah”, Abu Huraira 6.

• “What did misk Haeeh who came from Nadeer do?”, 329.

• The Prophet, peace be upon, never fought any people before calling people to Islam, Ibn Abbas 345.

• Allah is not merciful to (those who don’t protect their weaklings)”, 333.

• “What was she to be fought”, Rabah Ben spring 356.

• “O Um Ma’bad what is this sheep”, Abu Ma’bad 253.

• “Who makes a man convert to Islam”, Amer, 27.

• “He who took an oath in order to entitle himself (to the possession) of a property, whereas he is a liar”, Abdullah 335.

• Who heard of a Jew or a Christian who entered hell, Abu Musa 93.

• Who unjustly beats his slave, Ammar 91.

• Who tortures people in this world will be tortured in the hereafter, Hisham bin Hakim 92.

• “Whoever killed a Mu’ahid (a treaty-maker) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise”, Ibn Omar 66 – 67.

• “Whoever kills a Mu’ahad with no justification”, Abu Bakra 63.

• “Whoever killed a Mu’ahid (a treaty-maker) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise”, Ibn Omar 62.

• “If somebody slanders his slave and the slave is innocent from what he says”, Abu Huraira 89.

• “Whoever has a treaty between himself and a people, then let him not violate the treaty”, Amr ibn Absa 103.

• “Feed those of your slaves who please you from what you eat”, Abu Dhar 56.

• Whoever from the Arabs calls to prayer, Khaled Ben Said 347.

• “From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Bakr bin Wael, converted to Islam”, Anas 21.

• “I am his opponent (the one who breaks his oath)”, Jundub 70.

• “People are like gold and silver”, Abu Huraira 35.

• “Yes, Today is a day of fulfillment and sincerity”, Suraka 105.

• “Yes, (keep ties) with your mother, Asma 256.

• “Yes, the torment of the grave is true”, Aisha 241.

• The Messenger of Allah forbade his armies from mutilation, Makhool 363.

• The Messenger of Allah forbade mutilation, Khalid bin Ma’daan 362.

• “This is a letter from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him to Negus”, 29.

• “Did you call them to Islam”, Abu ibn Ka’b 346.

• “Do you have (remember) the poetry of Umayya ibn Abi Salt”, Shareed 290.

• “Why don’t you (side with) the one who has the right”, Abu Said 334.

• “Do you admire the softness of this (cloth)? The handkerchiefs of Sa’d b. Mu’adh in Paradise are better than this.” Anas 257.

• “Allah is only merciful (to merciful people)”, Anas 8.

• “Had he sold me or loaned me (something) I would have paid it (his loan)”, Abu Rafie 202.

• They gave Najran their oath of protection, 44.

• “How did you know it was Ruqyah?”, Abu Said 293.

• “And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.”, Ibn Massoud 238.

• “O Abu Harith convert to Islam”, Anas 39.

• “O Abu Dhar, you are a person who still has (the remnants) of Ignorance in him “,55.

• “O Abu Hurayrah call the Ansar”, Abu Huraira 319.

• “Ride your hourse,O son of Auf”, Arabad 83.

• “O Rkana, don’t you fear Allah”, 32.

• “O Saad, did you not hear what Abu Habbab said?” Osama bin Zaid 237.

• “O Shaybah come closer to me”, 314.

• “O Aisha! Do you know that Allah has instructed me regarding the matter I asked Him about?” 307.

• “O Aisha, Allah is kind and loves kindness” 317.

• “O Adi bin Hatim, convert to Islam and you shall be safe.” 38.

• “O uncle say there is no god but Allah”, Saeed bin Musayyib 25.

• “O So and so, do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?”, Al-Faltan 240.

• “O So and so, what prevents you from praying with us?”, Imran 298.

• “By Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (of Islam) through you”, Maaz 26.

• “O Jews, we were told that twelve men testify”, Auf bin Malik 252.

• “O Quraish buy (protect) yourselves”, Abu Huraira 15,

• “O immigrants”, Ibn Amr 106.

• “Make things easy and do not make them difficult”, Abu Musa 36.

• “May Allah guide you and grant you well-being”, Abu Musa 231.

Index of Athaar:

• “By Allah, he is described in the Torah”, Abdullah bin Amr 305.

• “You shall greet him first, if you need something from him”, Ibrahim 171.

• “If you write, the write peace be upon those who follow guidance”, Mujahid 173.

• “If you weaken his mind”, Ibn Omar 80.

• “This might suffice if he did not find Muslims”, Ibrahim 138.

• “Non-Muslim Captives”, Hassan 145.

• “Do not go kill monks”, Abu Bakr 358.

• Abu Darda visited his Jewish neighbor, 230.

• Abu Bakr and Umar made the compensation money for Jews and Christians, 75.

• His father freed a Magian boy, Kharja bin Zaid 304.

• Ibn Shash killed a Christian man from Levant, 77.

• Ibn Umar freed a Christian slave, 303.

• A Muslim bought clothes from a non-Muslim, At-Thaowri 210.

• “Your friends gave us their oath of protection”, Salman 370.

• “Some crescents are bigger than others”, Ibn Omar 367.

• The army passed by the land of a treaty-maker, 86.

• A Jewish man was killed in cold blood, 79 Anas.

• Safia gave some of her inheritance to a Jew, 289.

• Abdullah and Abu Darda and Fudala bin Obaid, used to greet non-Muslims first, 178.

• A Muslim and a Jew went to Omar bin al-Khattab for arbitration, 331.

• Omar bin Khattab called Farfesaa by his nicname, 186.

• Omar bin Abdul Aziz freed a Christian slave, 302.

• Amr bin Sharhabeel used to give al-Fitr alms to priests, 135.

• Motres is a safe place, and I give my oath of protection to whoever lives there, Ibn Omar 373.

• A Jew came to Abdul Malik bin Marwan, az-Zuhari 332.

• I cannot enter your Churches that have these photos, 169.

• He greeted Ad-Dahaqeen by waving at them, 163.

• He allowed a Jew to testify against a Christian, as-Shaibi 153.

• He told him that he saw ibn Makeaz shake hands with a Christian, 158.

• He used to ask for non-Muslims’ permission before entering their places, Abdul Rahman bin Yazeed 181.

• He said that there is nothing wrong with selling goods to treaty-makers, Hammad 217.

• He used to allow the people of the book to testify against each other, Shurayh 152.

• He used to give al-Fitr alms to priests, Abu Maysara 141.

• He asked tax collectors to not force treaty-makers to pay the Islamic tax, Ibn Omar 378.

• Muslims are allowed to become the business partners of Jews or Christians, Hassan 215.

• He greeted a man passed by and he replied, Okba Ben Amer 166.

• I ask you to not kill a child, or a woman, Abu bakar 360.

• I call the Caliph after me, to look after the immigrants, Omar 50.

• I advise you to look after treaty-makers, Omar 49.

• Your relatives of the people of the book, Qatada .284

• He sent another man and I to Hercules, Hisham ibn al-Aas 246.

• You must fulfill you convent to both the righteous and the immoral, Meimoon bin Mehran 368.

• I attended the Council of Musa ibn Ishaq in the mosque, Yahya bin Mohammed 337.

• The compensation money for treaty-makers, in his reign was about one thousand dinars, Ibn al 78.

• Greet back Jews and Christians, Ibn Abbas 164.

• Ibn Shihab was asked about killing treaty-makers who use black magic, 309.

• People asked Shaibi about feeding Jews or Christians in oath expiation, 137.

• Hassan was asked about the verdict of visiting the people of the Book, Abu alarm 183.

• I asked Nafe’ about the testimony of the People of the Book, 155.

• A Jew asked me about the period Moses spent, Said bin Jubair 235.

• I heard Ibn Greg and Thaowri say that a Muslim is allowed to console a non-Muslim, 276.

• Thaowri and Imran said that Muslims are not allowed to shake hands with a Jew, 160.

• I heard Suleiman ibn Musa say that they used to walk in our funerals, Ibn Greg 279.

• Intercession is for the old, the young, the Bedouin, the Jewish and the Christian, Thaowri 219.

• Shuraih Allowe a non-Muslim to testify, 154.

• I read the letter that Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent to Adi bin Ertah while we were in Basra, 375.

• “You must protect a Muslim slave just like you protect free Muslims”, Ibn Omar 374.

• “He promised them to not destroy their churches”, Khalid 47.

• “Do not betray them even if they initiated a fight”, Ibn Omar342.

• “They might have threatened you”, Ali 73.

• “Ata told me, ‘A Muslim my walk in a non-Muslims’ funeral'”, Ibn Greg 278.

• Jews said to Omar, “If this verse was revealed to us”, 249.

• “I said to Zuhri, ‘Should we greet him?'”, Muammar 179.

• Abu Musa wrote to Dehqan and greeted him, 162.

• He greeted a non-Muslim in a letter, 170.

• Khalid ibn al-Walid wrote to the people of Persia to invite them to Islam, Abu Wael 348.

• Amel wrote a letter to Omar and said that he met the Samaria people, Gatif 191.

• Omar bin Abdul Aziz said that a Jew may intercede, 218.

• I asked Omar bin Abdul Aziz about this verse, “Fight in the cause of Allah”, Yahya bin Yahya 361.

• I wrote a letter to Omar bin al-Khattab, when he made an alliance with the Christians of Syria, Abdul Rahman bin Ghanam 102.

• We were with Omar bin Khattab, when a beaten Copt came, Sweden bin Gafla 123.

• We used to pay al-Fitr alms for every person we provided for, of Abu Huraira 139.

• I was with Shakeek bin Salamah, when some captives passed by, Abu sedate 143.

• A Muslim may pray in the apparel of a Christian or a Magian, Thaowri 211.

• You may say to a Jews or a Christians, “May Allah guide you”, Ibrahim 233.

• A Muslim may bequeath a Jew or a Christian, as-Shabi 283.

• A Muslim may eat the slaughters of the people of the book, Abraham 190.

• A Muslim may be the business partner of a Jew or a Christian, Eyaas 216.

• There is nothing wrong with eating the cheese of the people of the book of cheese, Hassan and Ibn Sirin and 194.

• A Muslim may bequeath a non-Muslim, Atta 286.

• Do not eat the cheese, except what has been made, Ibn Mas’ood 192.

• Do not betray nor reach extremes, Abu Baker341.

• A Muslim may bequeath only one-third of his bequest to a Jew or a Christian, Hassan 287.

• Do not enter non-Muslims’ places without permission, Saeed bin Jubair 182.

• A Muslim may not give Jews or Christians of the Zakat, Ibrahim Nakha’i 136.

• Muslims are not allowed to kill women and children in battle, Mujahid 359.

• My parents converted to Islam before I was born, Aisha 127.

• Muslim armies never attacked monks, Bakr bin Sawada 357.

• When we conquered Madaien, people came out to fight the enemy, 193.

• When Muslims came, they ate some of the foods of the Magi, Ibrahim Abu Wael 195.

• When we went to Abyssinia, Umm Salamah 126.

• A man who verbally abused a Jew or a Christian, Ikrima 90.

• “I would even greet Pharaoh back, had he greeted me”, Ibn Abbas 167.

• If a Jew or a Christian died while he was with me, Muammar 277.

• Muslims may greet them first, Omar bin Abdul Aziz 177.

• We only have and recite the book of God, 65.

• The Jews and the Christians walked in the funeral of Sulaiman Bin Dawood, Abdul Razzaq 280.

• Muslims should give them their rights, az-Zuhari 148.

• Are they covenants and conventions, Arafa Bin Harith 376.

• Who converts to a religion becomes one of its followers, az-Zuhari 189.

• Of the people of Mecca, Said bin Jubair and Atta 144.

• “Where did you bring this water from?”, Omar 37.

• “Greet back whoever greets you”, Ibn Abbas 174.

• We have to protect the rights of treaty-makers, 377.

• The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, is described in the Torah as neither rude nor relentless, 306.

• Four verses from the Book of Allah were revealed regarding me, Saad 272.

• “Yes, they are my company, and I must give them their right”, Ibn Massoud 168.

• This is Abu Obeida’s letter to the people of der Tiyaaa, 371.

• This is what Abdullah Bin Omar; the prince of the faithful gave to the people of Ailia, 46.

• Had one of you only pointed his finger to the sky, Omar 365.

• Ibn Abbas look for my killer, Omar 51.

• “O Jew this is my armor”, Ali 336.

• A Muslim should pay al-fitr alms for his assitant, Ibn Abbas 140.

• He must fulfill the Covenant, bid 372.
Index:

Introduction……. 3

Research Methodology ….4

Part I:

Introduction…. 8

Islam urged Muslims to be tolerant with non-Muslims…. 11

Islam is the religion of guidance…. 14

Tolerance of belief and worship….33

Treaty-makers’ Commandments…. 34

The sanctity of the blood of the people of the Book and treaty-makers….37

The sanctity of their property and honor…..41

The prohibition of oppressing them…. 44

The fulfillment of covenants and charters…. 45

Muslims are allowed to give the alms to treaty-makers if they are poor…. 63

Arbitrating between the people of the Book…. 66

Accepting non-Muslims’ testimony…. 67

Accept their intercession in some cases…. 68

The verdict of greeting a non-Muslims and shaking their hands…. 69

Asking non-Muslims for permission before entering their places…. 73

Honoring them…. 73

The permissibility of the slaughter meat of the people of the book…. 74

Buying, selling and trading, and other transactions…. 75

Learning their science and language ….84

Seeking non-Muslims’ treatment….85

The right of non-Muslim neighbors…. 85

Visiting non-Muslim patients…. 86

Praying for them to be guided….87

Mingling with non-Muslims….87

Accepting their gifts….97

Non- Muslims’ Kinship….104

The approval of the People of the Book…. 106

Consoling a non-Muslim and burying him…. 107

Inheritance and wills….108

Marriage of the People of the Book…. 109

Narrating their stories 109

Charity to non-Muslims 110

Accepting non-Muslims’ invitation 112

Freeing non-Muslims 112

Pardoning them 113

Justice with non-Muslims 124

Manifestations of tolerance in Jihad 128

Manifestations of tolerance in the Islamic tax 135

Part II:

Jurisprudential rules and regulations that demonstrate Islam’s tolerance 137

Conclusion 173

References 175

Index of Elevated Hadiths 179

Index of Athaar 189

General Index 194

________

Notes:
• Saad bin Ibrahim Al Tamimi, a poet and a scholar known as the “Hees Bees”, he is known for his knowledge of Arabs and poetry, see his biography in “Dictionary of Writers”, (11/199), Heritage Revival house.

• “West’s Tolerance with Muslims,” a critical study (p. 76).

• “West’s Tolerance with Muslims,” a critical study (p. 53).

• “Who will Protect Christian Arabs” (p. 26).

• Bukhari in his “Saheeh” (3700), Book of “Companions’ Virtues”, Chapter of Allegiance.

• Bukhari (7288), The Book of “Holds Firmly”, Chapter of following the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and Muslim (1337), the book of pilgrimage, pilgrimage once in a lifetime.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (6/116) from the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah, Hadith Hasan.

• “Resorting to non-Muslims’ Help” (1/18), quote.

• The writer Shihab al-Din Mahmud bin Abdullah al-Husseini al-Alusi Baghdadi, who is known for his famous writings, and died in Baghdad in 1270 AH, see his biography in “flags”, by Zrcelli (7/176), House of science.

• “Spirit of Meanings” (9/76).

• Abu Dawood (4941) in “Sunan”, the book of literature, the chapter of mercy, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1924), the book of righteousness, chapter of Muslims’ mercy of, and said, “This is a Hasan Saheeh Hadith”, and Ahmad in his “Musnad”(2/160).

• Hafiz Ahmed bin Ali bin Hajar Abolfazl Askalani, owner of the famous classifications of Hadith, and the book of “Fath al-Bari, the explanation of Sahih Bukhari,” (year 852), see his biography in “Gold Fragmants” (7/270), march house.

• Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Khalaf bin Abdul Malik bin Battaal Bakri Qurtubi, known as Ibn al-Lejam, and known for his explanation of Sahih Bukhari (died in 449), see his biography in “Figures’ Biography” (18/47)

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/440).

• Bukhari in “Saheeh” (6013), Book of Ethics, the chapter of being merciful to people and animals, and Muslim in his “Sahih” (2319), the book of peace, chapter of “Showing mercy to children and others.”

• Sahih Bukhari (5304), Book of Divorce, chapter of “al-La’an”.

• “Sahih Muslim” (2983), Book of asceticism, chapter of “Being kind to poor widows and orphans”.

• Sahih Bukhari (2466), BookofOppressions, chapter of “Wells in the Road that do no harm anyone”, and “Sahih Muslim” (2244), thebookofpeace, chapter of “Wateringand feedingcattle.”

• “Sahih Muslim” (2245), Book of peace, chapter of “Wateringand feedingcattle.”

• Al-Homra, is a bird.

• Abu Dawood (2675), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Impermissibility of Burning the Enemy with Fire”

• Bukhari (2365), Book of Watering, the merit of watering, “Sahih Muslim” (2242), Book of peace, chapter of harming cats or other animles that do not harm people. And see the book “Islam is a religion of guidance and mercy” (p. 9).

• “Sahih Muslim” (2599), Book of righteousness, chapter of “The prohibition of cursing animals.”

• An-Nasai’e “Major” (6/380), Book of Interpretation, chapter of the verse, “And nothing has prevented us from sending signs except that the former peoples denied them. And we gave Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign, but they wronged her. And we send not the signs except as a warning.” And Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (2/272), chapter of “Their questions to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him in Makkah”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (3231), Book of the Beginning of Creation, chapter of “When someone says Amen”, and Muslim (1795), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The oppression the Prophet, peace be upon him, suffered non-Muslims, Thaqeef, the hypocrates, and Ibn Abdul Ialil from the people of Taif “.”Fath al-Baari” (6/315).

• Bukhari (4821), Book of Interpretation, chapter of the verse, “Covering the people; this is a painful torment”, and Muslim (2798), Bookof the description of the day ofresurrectionandheavenandhell.

• Bukhari (262), Book of ablution after converting to Islam and binding the prisoner in the mosque, “Sahih Muslim” (1764), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Binding prisoners and giving them food”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (8/88). Ibn Hajar said, that Ibn Ishaq narrate, “I have forgiven you Thumaamah.”

• Abu Ali in “Musnad” (7/250). Haythami Said, “Narrated by Abu Ali and his men are trusted but Ibn Ishaaq isn’t”. “Majma az-Zawaed” (8/341), and is backed by Hadith Abu Musa in “Athafe Al-khira” (7/324), and is attributed to Ibn Abu Omar and Nasa’i in “Major”. I said, “Al-Albaani narrated it from al-Hasan Ibn al-Mubarak in “Asceticism” (1/203), and thus the Hadith is Hasan. See: “The Series of Correct Hadiths” (167).

• Bukhari (2937), Book of Jihad and praying for non-Muslims’ guidance, and “Sahih Muslim” (2524), Book of peace, chapter of “The Merits of Ghaffar, Juhayna, Aslam, Ashja’, Mazeen, Daows, Tae’ and Tamim.”

• “Omdat Al-Qare'” (14/208).

• Mohammed Ben Youssef Ben Ali Kirmani, famous for his commentary on Sahih Bukhari, died in “786”. See: his biography in “Underlying Gems” (4/310), Generation House.

• Bukhari (2941), Book of Jihad, Chapter of “The prayer of the Prophet, peace be upon him”.

• Bukhari (7) Book of revelation, and Muslim (1773), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’ letter, peace be upon him, to Hercules, calling him to Islam.

• Imam Hafiz Mohiuddin Yahya bin Sharaf Bin Marie Shafei, owner of the famous classifications, most notably, “Commentary on Saheeh Muslim” and “Total Explanation”. See his biography in the “Tazkerat al-Huffaz” (4/174).

• “Nawawi’s explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/107).

• Muslim (1774), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’ letter, peace be upon him, to kings, calling him to Islam.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/113).

• Bukhari (2938), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Calling Jews and Christians to Islam” and “The Prophet ‘s letter, peace be upon him to Khosrau and Caesar” and “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”, and Muslim (2092), Book of Adornment, chapter of “The Prophet used a seal when writing letters to Persians”

• .Bukhari (6944) Book of coercion, chapter of “Selling and rights”, and Muslim (1765), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The evacuation of Jews from Hijaz.”

• Bukhari (2753), Book of Commandments, chapter of “Are women and children regarded as relatives”, and Muslim (204), a book of faith, chapter of “The verse, ‘ And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest kindred'”.

• “Signs of Prophecy”, Bayhaqi (2/179).

• Tirmidhi (3681), “Doors of Virtue”, chapter of “The virtues of Omar bin Khattab”, and Abu Issa said, “This is a hasan saheeh Ghraib Hadith from Ibn Umar.

• Narrated by Tayaalisi in “The Beginning and the End” (6 | 168), through Imran Qattan, form Qatada, from Anas Ibn Malik, from Zayd ibn Thabit, and this is a Hassan Hadith; For Imran Qattan is a trusted narrateor, as Ibn Hajar said in “Takreeb at-Tahzeeb.”

• Tirmidhi (3942), “Doors of Virtue”, chapter of “The Merits of Thaqif and Bani Hanifa”, He said, “This Hadith is a Hassan true Ghraib Hadith”. I said, “It is via Abu Zubayr from Jabir and Abu Zubair is not trusted, but Abdul Rahman bin Sabit, narrated it in Ahmad’s Musnad (3/343), thus it is a correct Hadith”.

• Bukhari (3009), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The reward of whoever makes a man convert to Islam”, and “Muslim” (2406), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Ali bin Abi Talib”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (7/478).

• Abu Ali in “Musnad” (5/325), and Tabarani in “The Small” (307). Haythami Said it is found in “Majma az-Zwae’d” (5/353).

• Narrated by Bazzaar and Abu Ali and Tabarani in “The Small”, and the first two men are known for their accurate narrations. And narrated by Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh / charity” (14/500). See: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/339).

• Bukhari (97), Book of science, chapter of “A man teaching his nation and his family”, and Muslim (154), Book of faith, chapter of “The necessity of the Belief in the message of our Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.”

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/199), and is correct.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/61), and “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/199), and is a Mursal Hadith as Ibn Katheer stated.

• Tabarani in his book “The Enormous” (20/336). Haythami said, “Attabarani narrated this Hadith in his book “The Enormous”, “Majma az-Zwa’ed” (3/220).

• Narrated in “Sahih Bukhari” (1360), Book of Funerals, chapter of “When a non-Muslim coverts to Islam in his death bed”, and Muslims (24), Book of faith, chapter of “The accepted Islam of the non-Muslim who coverts to Islam in his death bed (54) Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and his men are trustworthy, however Mu’az died before Doad bin Nafi was born, “Majma az-Zwa’ed ” (5/602).

• Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani in three places, and Mohammed bin Maaouya Alnisabure is a trusted narrator. However, Ahmed regarded it a weak Hadith, yet the rest of the narrators are trustworthy, “Majma az-Zwa’ed” (5/602).

• “High Demands”, by Ibn Hajar (2/166). And Busayri mentioned it in his book “Athafe al-Khira” (6/332), and is a Mursal Hadith.

• Narrated by Bayhaqi in “Signs”(4/395), a Mursal Hadith.

• Signs ofprophecy”Bayhaqi (4/395), and “The Beginning and the End”, (4/272), I said, “Abd al-Rahman bin Zaid bin Aslam narrated weak Hadith, see his biography in “Tahzeeb at-Tahzeeb” (6/161) and Ahmad and others said that it is weak, but Abdul Rahman bin Abdul qare’ said that it is Mursal Hadith.

• Ibn Katheer said in “The Beginning and the End” (3/103), that Ibn Ishaq narrated this story.

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (4078), book of clothes and turbans, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1784), book of clothes and turbans. Abu Issa said, “This is a Hasan weird Hadith, for we do not know Abu Hassan Asqallaani or Rkana.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/153)

• Bukhari (3383), book of Prophets’ Hadiths, chapter of “The verse, ‘ Certainly were there in Joseph and his brothers signs for those who ask'”, and Muslim (2378), Book of virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Joseph peace be upon him”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (15/135).

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/529).

• Bukhari (4341), book of Conquests, chapter of “Sending Abu Musa”, and Muslim (1733) Book of Jihad, chapter of “Making it easier and not Difficult for Muslims”.

• Daaraqutni in”Sunan” (1/32), and Bayhaqi in”Sunan” (1/32), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (4/3787), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “Classification” (7/342), and the origin of the Bukhari Hadith (3595), The Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The signs of prophecy in Islam”.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “Classification” (7/427), a Mursal Hadith from Qatada, and Ibn Muqre’ mentioned it in “The lexicon” (304), thus it is a correct Hadith.

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55), and “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (5/385). I said, “Abdu Yasu’, his father and his grandfather are not well-known narrators, however Ibn Hajar mentioned him in his book “Distinguishing Companions” (7/265). Ibn Hajar said, “Abu Abdu Yasu”s Hadith is mentioned in Bayhaqi’s book “The Evidence”, and is narrated by Younis bin Bakir in Ibn Ishaq’s book “Conquests”.

• Tabarani in “The Enourmous” (24/90), and is a correct Hadith, and Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani and its men are trusted narrators”, “Majma az-Zawae’d” (5/554).

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (3/109), and Abu Ali in “Musnad” (6/471), and is a correct Hadith. Haythami Said, “This Hadith is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Ali and its men are trusted narrators”, “Majma az-Zawae’d” (5/554).

• Tabarani in “The Enormous” (20/8). Haythami said, “This Hadith is narrated by Attabarani and Mohammed bin Ismail Ibn Ayyash, who is known for his weak narrations”, “Majma Zawae’d”] (5/554). I said, “Mohammed bin Ishaq is known for his weak narrations.”

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55), and “Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 72), from Ibn Isaac.

• “Biography” Ibn Kathir (4/100), and “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/629).

• Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub Zorai Demashqi Shamsuddin, known as Ibn al-Qayyim, and is Taymya’s pupil, Ibn Hajar said about him, “He was knowledgeable, and knew a lot about the different disagreements and doctrines”. He died in “751”. See his biography “Underlying Gems” (3/400), Generation House.

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “History of Nations and Kings” (3/609), and “Provisions of treaty-makers” (454).

• “Abscess” Abu Yusuf (p. 146) from a Mursal Hadith from Ibn Ishaq.

• “Athafe Al-khira” (1/184), narrated from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah. Yet, Ibn Hajar mentioned in his book “The Tongue”, that this Hadith is weak (4/20), Abdul Samad Jaber.

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (3162) Book of Islamic tax and the commandments of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, regarding treaty-makers.

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (1392) Book of funerals, chapter of “The graves of the Prophet, peace be upon him, Abu Bakr, and Umar.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/267).

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (3700), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of “Allegiance”.

• “Saheeh Muslim” (2543), Book of Companions’ Virtues, chapter of ” The commandments of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, regarding the people of Egypt”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Saheeh Muslim” (16/97).

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/231) and Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” 10/332, and in the “Isnaad”.

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (5156), book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ rights”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (1/78).

• “Saheeh Bukhar” (30), Book of Faith, chapter of “Sins of the period of ignorance”. And Muslim (1661) Book of Faith, chapter of “Feeding slaves of your own food”.

• Narrated by Abu Dawood in “Sunan” (5161), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (1/168).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (5164), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1949), Book of righteousness, chapter of “Pardoning servants”.

• “High Demands” (3/26), narrated from Abu Ya’la.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (4/35). Haythami Said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani, however Asim bin Obeid-Allah, is known for his weak narrations.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Abu Ali and his narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar and Assem bin Obeid-Allah, who is known for his weak narrations.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/431).

• Bukhari (3166), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”.

• Nasa’i (8/24), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”.

• Nasa’i (8/25), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”, and Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/36).

• Tirmidhi (1403), chapter of “Who Kills a Treaty-maker”. Abu Issa said, “This Hadith is narrated by Abu Huraira, and is a Hassan correct Hadith”.

• Bukhari (3172), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “Muslims’ rights, and their neighbors’ rights”, and Muslim (1370), Book of Hajj, chapter of “The Merit of Madina and the prayers of the Prophet, peace be upon him, of blessing.”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/86), and “Nawawi’s Explanation of Saheeh Muslim” (9/144).

• Nasa’i in “Sunan” (8/25), and is a correct Hadith.

• Nasa’i in “Sunan” (8/25), Book of Oath, chapter of “The sin of unjustly killing a treaty-maker”, and is a correct Hadith.

• “Degrees of Faith” by Bayhaqi (4/342), and is narrated by Fadhil bin Suleiman, who is known for his inaccurate narrations. And Ayez bin Rabia, see his biography in “Amendment” by Ibn Abi Hatim.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (4/61). Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and his narrators are trustworthy”, “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Enormous” and “The Middle” and his narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and the Sadakha bin Abdullah Samin, however Ahmad and others regard this Hadith weak.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/459).

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1404), chapter of “Who Kills a Treaty-maker”. Abu Issa said, “This is a strange Hadith, for Ibn Hajar said in “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”, that Sa’ead Ibn Al-Murzeban is known for his weak narrations.”

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/344), and Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/147), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/34). And Abu Hatem regarded it a weak Hadith.

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/134) through Ibn Umar, Daaraqutni said, “Narrated by Ibrahim bin Abi Yahya and Rabia Ibn Albilmana, who are known for their weak narrations”, Ibn Hajar said in “Attaining Objectives” (353), “Narrated by Abdul Razzaq, and Daaraqutni attributed it to Ibn Umar.”

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/129), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/102).

• Dawood (4583), book of compensation Money, chapter of “Treaty-makers’ compensation Money”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1413) Book of compensation Money, Chapter of “Non-Muslims’ compensation Money”, and Nasa’I in “Sunan (8/45), chapter of “The amount of Non-Muslims’ compensation Money”. Abu Issa said, “This is a hasan Hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Amr.

• “Musnad as-Shafei” (1/344), and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/33). I said, “Sufyan ibn Hussein is a trusted narrator, as stated by Ibn Hajar in “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”.

• Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/149), and is narrated by Rabah bin Obaidullah, who is known for his weak narrations as Ahmed and Daaraqutni said. See his biography in “The Tongue” (2/548).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/32) through the narration of Yahya bin Saeed, however Ibn al-Madani and Anas said that Yahya was not born in the reign of Omar bin al-Khattab, see: “Atahzeeb and Attakreeb”, (11/196) .

• “High Demands” (2/149), through the narration of Ibn Abi Shaybah, whom Ibn Hajar remained silent about. See: “The classification” of Ibn Abi Shaybah (6/484).

• Bukhari (2618), Book of Gifts, chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2056), a book of Beverages, chapter of “Honoring guests with food”.

• Abu Dawood (3050), Book of Tax and leadership, the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims if they disagree in transactions”, and is a weak Hadith as Nasa’i and Daaraqutni stated, for it is narrated by Asha’th bin Swar, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Dawood (3052), Book of Tax and leadership, the chapter of “Arbitrating between non-Muslims if they disagree in transactions”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Dawood (4604), Book of Sunnah, chapter of “Adhering to Sunnah”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (6/91), and is a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233).

• Abu Dawood (3806), book of Foods, chapter of “The prohibition of eating wild animals”. Narrated by Saleh bin Yahya bin Miqdaam, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (6858), Book of Limits, chapter of “Accusing slaves”, and Muslim in Saheeh (1660) Book of Faith, chapter of “The Prohibition of Accusing Slaves of Adultery.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/485), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/485), and is a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and trustworthy men”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/436).

• Muslim (2613), chapter “The stern warning to those who torture people unlawfully”.

• Ibn Hibbaan “Saheeh” (11/238), chapter of “Torment in for those who verbally abuse the people of the book”. And is a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad (3/153).

• Bukhari (3414), Book of Prophets’ Hadith, chapter of “The words of Allah, ” And indeed, Jonah was among the messengers”, and Muslim (2373), Book of virtues, chapter of “The virtues of Moses, peace be upon him”. Narrated by several companions.

• Ahmed (1/193), a correct Hadith as Ibn Hibbaan stated, and is narrated by Abu Ali. See: “Athafe al-Khira” (7/315).

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/502).

• “Athafe al-Khira” (7/315) narrated by al-Harith, and Ibn Lahee’ah, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Muslim (1787), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The fulfillment of Covenants”.

• Bukhari (2731), Book of Conditions, chapter of “Jihad conditions”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/340).

• “Provisions of Treaty-makers” (p. 454)

• Abu Dawood (2759), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Covenant between the Imam and the enemy”, and Tirmidhi (1580) “Biographies”, chapter of “Treachery”, and is a correct Hadith.

• “High Demands” (2/170), narrated by Isaac, and is regarded as a weak Hadith by Busayri, see: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/346) bin Said chapter.

• “High Demands” (2/173), narrated by al-Hamidi.

• Ibn Majah (4019), Book of sedition, chapter of “Penalties”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (2761), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Apostles”, and is a correct Hadith.

• (143) Abu Dawood (2762), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Apostles”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (4072), Book of Conquests, chapter of “The killing of Hamza Bin Abdul Muttalib”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (7/369).

• Abu Dawood (2758), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Imam’s covenants”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Hafiz Abu Suleiman Hamad bin Mohammed bin Ibrahim Busta, Known for his classifications, died in 388, see: his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (17/23).

• “Aoun al-Ma’bood” (7/311).

• Bukhari (3173) chapter of “Reconciliation with non-Muslims”, “The fulfillement of convenants”, and “The verse ‘ And if they incline to peace, then incline to it” [Anfal: 61]. And Muslim (1669), Book of Oath, warriors, retribution and compensation money, chapter of “Compensation money”

• Bukhari (3174), Book of Islamic Tax, chapter of “The fulfillment of Covenants”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/276).

• Bukhari (3178), Book of Islamic Tax, and Muslim (58), Book of Faith, chapter of “Hypocrits’ traits”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/280).

• “Athafe al-Khira” (6/346), narrated by Ibn Isaac, and is a weak Hadith as Busayri stated in “The book of bin Said”.

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3187), and Muslim (1736), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”.

• “Saheeh Muslim (1738), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”.

• “Nawawi’s Explaination of Sahih Muslim” (12/44).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/392), a weak Hadith narrated by Asha’th bin Siwar, Shuraik and Hasan al-Basri.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/445), a weak Hadith narrated by Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah al-Masoudi, and Ibn Haroon.

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/16).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/17).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/55).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (3041) Book of Tax and leadership, chapter of “Collecting the Islamic Tax”, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/187), and is a weak Hadith narrated by Asbat Ben Nasr and Ismail bin Abdul Rahman. See: “Attaqreeb and Attahzeeb”(1/275).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/201), a weak hadith narrated by Mujaled bin Saeed.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (3/135)

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/72).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/290).

• Bukhari (2297), Book of Bail, chapter of “Abu Bakr’s convenant”.

• Abu Dawood in “Sunan” (4292) Book Of Epics, chapter of “Roman’s Epics”, and Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (4089), Book of Sedition”, and Ahmed in “Musnad” (4/91).

• “Saheeh Muslim”(1507), Book of Freeing Slaves, chapter of “The prohibition of making slaves work for other than their masters”.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/225).

• Nasa’i in “The Major” (6/305) and is a correct Hadith.

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran” by Ibn Kathir (4/447), a Hasan Hadith narrated be Jaafar.

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran” (4/447).

• “The Explanation of the Great Quran”, by Ibn Kathir (4/584).

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (3332), Book of sales, chapter of “Avoid suspicions”, and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (4/113), and is a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (4/112), narrated by Ibrahim ibn al-Muhaji, a trusted narrator as Ibn Hajar stated in “Attaqreeb”.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (8/511), a weak Hadith narrated by Jaber Aljafee.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (3/324)

• Abdul Razzaq in the “classified” (3/324).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(2/401).

• Bukhari (1461), Book of Zakat, chapter of “Zakat on relatives”, and “Saheeh Muslim” (998), Book of Zakat, chapter of “Alimony and paying alms to non-Muslim relatives, husbands, children and parents.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401). Narrated by Abu Khaled al-Ahmar, and Hajjaj bin Katheer, who are known for their inaccurate narrations

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/401). And is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (2/402). Narrated by Habib ibn Abi Habib sadooq goofing.

• Tirmidhi (1436), chapter of “The stoning of the People of the Book”.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classification” (6/62), and is a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2416), Book of Debates, chapter of “Debaters statements about each other”. And Muslim (138), Book of faith, chapter of “Hell torment to whoever violates Muslim’s rights”.

• Abu Dawood (3591), chapter of “Arbitrating between the people of the Book.

• Bukhari (2780), Book of Commandments, and Abu Dawood (3606), chapter of “Treaty-makers’ testimony, and travelers bequest”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/412).

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classified” (6/129), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (4/532).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (4/532)

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(4/532), narrated by Khalid bin Abdul Rahman bin Bakir, who is known for his inaccurate narrations

• Ibn Abi Shaybah “The Classification”(4/532), a Hasan Hadith narrated by Awn ibn Muammar, who is known for his inaccurate narrations, as mentioned by Ibn Hibbaan. See: “The Tounge”.

• Bukhari (3635), Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The words of Allah the Almighty, “Know it as they know their sons”, and Muslim (1699) Book of Limits, chapter of “Stoning Jewish treaty-makers for adultery”.

• Bukhari (3139), Book the Five Impositions, chapter of “When the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave the captives of the spoils”.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification”(5/246), narrated by Abu Abdullah Asqallaani and Hassan bin Muslim Hudhali. See: “The Amendment”.

• Tabarani in “The Enormous” (8/109), and Haythami said, “Attabarani narrated it in the “Middle”, and is a weak Hadith narrated by Amr ibn Hashim Beiruti.” See: “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/63). He also said, “Attabarani narrated it from shaykh Bakr ibn, however Nasa’I regarded this is a weak Hadith. See: “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/69).

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classification”(6/117).

• Bukhari (2987), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Replying to Donkies”, and Muslim (1798), Book of Jihad and walk, chapter of “The Prophet’s prayer, peace be upon him, against the harm of the hypocrites.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/377), and is a correct Hadith.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/378), and is a correct Hadith.

• “Single Ethics” Bukhari (1/378).

• Bukhari (7), Book of the Beginning of Revelation, and Muslim (1773), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’s letter, peace be upon him, to Hercules, calling him to Islam.

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/380)

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/381), and is a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classified” (5/259), a correct Hadith.

• “Single Literature” by Bukhari (1/427), narrated by Mohammed bin Isaac.

• “High Demands” (2/421), and “Athafe al-Khira” (7/393). Narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), A Mursal Hadith narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Musaddad.

• “High Demands” (2/421), narrated by Abu Ya’la.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani in “The Enormous”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/83)

• .Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/83).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/249), a weak Hadith narrated by Masoudi.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/249), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a correct Hadith.

• (222) Muslim (2163), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (14/145).

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/14), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/270), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/14), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/270), a correct Hadith. And Abu Alnnbh is Omar bin Saadi, a trusted narrator as Ibn Abi Hatim said in “The Amendment” (6/135).

• “High Demands” (2/422), narrated by Ibn Abu Omar.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a Mursal Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), narrated by Ma’roof bin Abi Ma’roof al-Balkhi, an unknown narrator.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/122), a Mursal Hadith which Ibn Muqre’ mentioned in his “Dictionary”

• Abu Daoud in “Sunan” (2817), Chapter of “Eating the slaughters of the people of the book”.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (4/486), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), narrated by Abu Jafar al-Razi, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (5/130), a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2499), Book of Partnership, chapter of “The partnership of Muslims and treaty-makers in crops”, and Muslim (1551), chapter of “The partnership in fruit and planting”.

• Dawood (3055), Book of Tax and Leadership, chapter of ‘The Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, a correct Hadith.

• Narrated by Hakem in the “Afterthought” (3/700), and Ibn Habban in “Saheeh” (1/521) chapter of “The permissibility of transacting with non-Muslims”, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (6/24), and Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (6/280), narrated by Mohammed bin Abi Sarri, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Bukhari (2263), Book of Trade, chapter of “Employing non-Muslims when necessary”.

• Bukhari (2731), Book of Conditions, chapter of Jihad conditions.

• Ahmed bin Abdul Halim bin Abdul Salam ibn Taymiyah Aharani ad-Damashqi, the scholar who supported Sunnis and repressed heresies, known for his great classifications, died in 728. See his biography in “Underlying Gems” (1/144), Generation House.

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Milestones Sunan” (2/326).

• Tirmidhi (2473), Book of the Description of the day of Resurrection, Abu Issa said, “This is a good strange Hadith”.

• “Athafe al-Khira” (4/289) narrated by Isaac bin Raahawayh.

• Bukhari (2068), Book of sales, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him, buying goods”, and Muslim (1603), chapter of “The permissibility of Mortgage.”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/141).

• “Fath al-Baari” “Baari” (5/141)

• “Athafe al-Khira” (4/288), and Busayri said, “A Mursal Hadith narrated by men”.

• Bukhari (2089), Book of Sales, chapter of “Sawagh”, and Muslim (1979), Book of Beverages, chapter of “The prohibition of alcohol and that is made of grape juice, dates, raisins, malt and others.”

• “Saheeh Bukhari (2244), a Book of “Mortage”, chapter of “Lending goods”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/431).

• Abu Dawood (1716), Book of “Lost things”, chapter of “The definition of Lost Things”, a Hasan Hadith.

• Bukhari (2216) chapter of “Purchasing goods from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2056) Book of Beverages, chapter of “Being generous to guests”

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/411).

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (3719), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Jester”, a weak Hadith narrated by Zama bin Saleh.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (1/361), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (1/361), a correct Hadith.

• Dawood (3562) Book of sales, chapter of “Ensuring borrowed goods”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2396) Book of Borrowing, chapter of “Borrowing dates for dates”.

• Imam Hafiz Abu Bakr Mohammed bin Ibrahim ibn Mundhir Alnisabure, the author of the classifications, such as “consensus” and “Middle”, and others died in 318, see his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (14/490).

• “Fath al-Baari” (4/480).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/269), a correct Hadith narrated by Hisham bin Hassan from al-Hasan.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/269)

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (4/556), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classification” (8/84), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The classification” (8/84), a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (1/247)

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (2715) Book of Permission, chapter of “Teaching Syriac”, Abu Issa said, “This is a Hasan correct Hadith.”

• Malek in “Muwatta” (2/607), and Abu Dawood (3882), Book of Medicine chapter of “Gheelah”, and Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (2077), Book of Medicine, Chapter of “Gheelah, and Nasa’i in “Sunan” (6 / 106) chapter of “Gheelah”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (3875), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Al-Ajwa Dates”, narrated by Mujahid who had never heard from Saad.

• Dawood (3883), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Amulets”, a correct Hadith. However, Sheikh al-Albaani narrated the same Hadith in different wordings (2972).

• Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1943), Chapter of “Neighbors’ rights”, and Bukhari in “Single literature” (1/50), chapter of “Neighbors”

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani and Ibn Lahee’ah, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy.””Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/303).

• Abu Dawood (3839) book of Foods, chapter of “Eating in the utensils of the people of the book”, a correct Hadith that it is narrated by Bukhari (5488), Book of Slaughters, Chapter of “Hunting”, and Muslim (1930) Book of Hunting and sacrifices, chapter of “Hunting with dogs”.

• Bukhari (1356), Book of Funerals, “The funeral of Young Muslims”, and Abu Dawood (3095), chapter of “Visiting Treaty-Makers.”

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (3/40).

• Abu Dawood (5038), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Greeting back treaty-makers”, and al-Tirmidhi (2739), Book of Arts, chapter of “How to respond to non-Muslims who sneeze”, in his “Musnad” (4/400).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a Mursal Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/105), a Mursal Hadith.

• Bukhari (2684), Book of Testimonies, chapter of “Fulfilling Promises”.

• Dawood (3626), Book of Akdya, chapter of “Treaty-makers’ testimoney”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (4566), Book of Interpretation, chapter of “The verse, ‘ And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you'”, and Muslim (1798), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The Prophet’s patience, peace be upon him, with the hypocrites”.

• Bukhari (125), chapter of “The verse, “And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little”, and Muslim (2794), Book of the Description of the day of resurrection and heaven and hell, chapter of “Jews’ questions to the Prophet, peace be upon him, regarding the spirit and the vesrse, ” And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Tabaraani in “The Middle” and “The Enormous”, Ahmed in “Musnad”, Bazzaar, and Thumaamah bin Oqba, and its narrators are trustworthy, however mentioned a different narration of the same Hadith.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (10/769).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh – Charity” (14/541), Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani Bazzaar, and trustworthy narrators”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/438)

• Bukhari (1372), Book of Funerals, chapter of “The torment of the grave”, and Muslim (586) in a different version, Book of Mosques, chapter of “Seeking refuge from the torment of the grave”.

• Muslim (315), Book of Menstruation, chapter of “The description of the semen of men and women and that the child is created from their semen.”

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”, narrated by Bukhari (63), Book of science, chapter of “Science”, and Muslim (12), Book of Faith, chapter of “Asking about the pillars of Islam”.

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”.

• Dawood (486), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Non-Muslims entering the mosque”, a weak Hadith.

• “Aoun al-Ma’bood” (2/108).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/335).

• “Fath al-Baari” (8/219).

• Dawood (3644), Book of science, chapter of “Narrating the stories of the People of the Book”, a weak Hadith, however Ibn Hajar said, “This Hadith is narrated by Ibn Abi namla and thus it is an acceptable Hadith.”

• Bukhari (4811), Book of Interpretation, chapter of “The verse” And they did not appraise Allah with true appraisal”, and Muslim (2786), Book of the description of theday of resurrection and heaven and hell”.

• Bukhari (45), Book of Faith, chapter of “The increase and the decrease of faith”, and Muslim (3017), Book interpretation.

• Nasa’I (7/6), chapter of “The alliance in Ka’bah”, a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2118), Book of Expiation, chapter of “The Prohibition of saying what God wills and what you will”, a correct Hadith.

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (6/25), a correct Hadith.

• A Hasan Hadith narrated by Hisham bin Hobeish, Jaber, Hakem (3/9), and Tabarani in “Mujma” (6/58), and Ibn Kathir in “The Beginning and the End” (3/192) .

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazaar, Attabarani, and trustworthy narrators”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (6/72), (8/548).

• Bukhari (2619), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2620), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2615), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/230).

• Bukhari (2616), Book of Donation, chapter of “Giving gifts to non-Muslims”

• Bukhari (2216), chapter of “purchase and sale with non-Muslims and enemies”, and Muslim (2056) Book of Beverages, chapter of “Being generous to guests”.

• (313) “Fath-Baari” (5/232).

• Dawood in “Sunan” (3055), Book of Islamic tax and Leadership, chapter of “The Imam accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (4034), Book of Clothes, chapter of “Wearing long clothes”, a weak Hadith narrated by Ali bin Zaid bin Jad’aan.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Tabarani in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/270).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Ali bin Zaid bin Jadaan, who is known for his weak narrations”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/270).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani in “East” in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/271).

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Bazzaar, and Mendel Ben Ali, who is known for his weak narrations”. “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/271).

• Ahmad in “Musnad” (5/441).

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3497), Book of Morality, chapter of “The verse, ” O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you”

• .Bukhari (5990), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Kinship”

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/422).

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (2/179).

• Bukhari (5978), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Kinship with non-Muslim parents”, (5981) and the chapter of “Kinship with a non-Muslim brother”, and narrated the Hadith of Omar’s suit.

• “Single Literature” (24), chapter of “Being dutiful to a non-Muslim father”, a correct Hadith. And Muslim (1748), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The spoils of war”

• “Signs of Prophecy” (4/330).

• Bukhari (3558), Book of Virtues and Merits, chapter of “The description of the Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2336), Book of virtues, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him, leaving his hair down”.

• Tirmidhi said, “This is a correct, Hasan, and strange Hadith narrated by Nayyar bin Makram, whom we only know from the Hadith of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Zinad. Tirmidhi (3194), chapter of “The Romans”

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (6/42) a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (1311), Book of Funerals, chapter of “Walking in the funeral of a Jew”, and Muslim (960), book of Funerals, chapter of “executing funerals”.

• Bukhari (1312) Book of Funerals, chapter of “Walking in the funeral of a Jew”, and Muslim (961), book of Funerals, chapter of “executing funerals”.

• Imam Hafiz Abu Fadl Ayaz bin Musa bin Ayaz Aleihsba al-Andalusi al-Maliki, owner of the famous classifications, who died in 544, see his biography in “Figures’ Biographies” (20/212).

• “Fath al-Baari” (3/181).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/212), and Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/353), narrated by Jaber Aljafee, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/212), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/353), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classification” (6/213), a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari, Book of Commandments, Chapter of “Giving one third of the bequest”.

• Abdul Razzaq in “The classified” (10/352), a correct Hadith.

• Darami in “Sunan” (2/517) a correct Hadith.

• Muslim (2255), a book of Poetry.

• Abu Dawood (3662), Book of Science, Chapter of “Narrating the stories of the children of Israel”, a correct Hadith.

• Abu Dawood (3663), Book of science, Chapter of “Narrating the stories of the children of Israel”, a correct Hadith.

• Bukhari (2276), Book of Employment, chapter of “What to give the one who reads Ruqya”, and Muslim (2201), Book of Peace, chapter of “The permissibility to take payment on Roqya.

• .Tirmidhi in “Sunan” (1943), Chapter of “Neighbors’ Rights”, and Bukhari in “Single Literature” (1/50) chapter of “Visiting neighbor first”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabaraniyy in “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy”.”Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/36).

• Bukhari (3008), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Clothing captives”, and Muslim (2773) Book of the attributes of the hypocrites.

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/21), narrated from Bukhari (3050), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The ransom of non-Muslims”, and Muslim (463), Book of Prayer, chapter of “Praying the prayers he missed”

• Bukhari (5436) book of Foods, chapter of “Gravy”, and Muslim (2041) Book of Beverages, chapter of “The permissibility of eating broth and pumpkin, and honoring guests.”

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Attabarani, and Ibn Lahee’ah, who is known for narrating Hasan Hadiths, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy.” “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (8/303).

• Abu Dawood (5156), Book of Ethics, chapter of “Slaves’ Rights”, a correct Hadith.

• Malik in “Mutih” (1085), and Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classified” (6/18), and Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (6/285), a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The classification” (3/108), a correct Hadith.

• Abdul Razzaq in the “The Classified” (6/124).

• Bukhari (2125), Book of Sales, chapter of “The Prohibition of Sakhab in the market”.

• Darami in “Sunan” (1/16).

• Bukhari (5765), Book of Medicine, chapter of “Are we allowed to extracted magic?”, and Muslim (2189) chapter of “Magic”.

• Bukhari (3175), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should we pardon traety-makers who used magic?”

• Bukhari (3175), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should we pardon traety-makers who used magic?”

• Bukhari (3906), Book of the Virtues of Ansar, chapter of “The migration of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his companions to Madina”.

• Bukhari (3169), Book of Islamic tax, chapter of “Should Muslims forgive non-Muslims’ treachery”.

• Bukhari (2617), Book of Donation, chapter of “Accepting gifts from non-Muslims”, and Muslim (2190), Book of Peace, chapter of “Poison”.

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh – Charity” (2/170).

• “The Beginning and the End” (8/213), and Bayhaqi in “Signs of Prophecy” (5/145), a very weak Hadith, as mentioned in Maghazi Ibn Ishaq.

• “Distinguishing companions” (2/573).

• Bukhari (6926), Book of “Asking apostates to repent”, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2163), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• Bukhari (6927), Book of “Asking apostates to repent”, chapter of “The Prophet, peace be upon him”, and Muslim (2165), chapter of “The prohibition of greeting the people of the book first and how to respond to them”.

• Tirmidhi (1213), Book of Sales, chapter of “The Permissibility of purchasing goods and paying for them later on”, Abu Issa said, “Aisha’s Hadith is a strange Hasan Hadith, narrated by Nasa’i in “Sunan” (7/294), Book of sales”, chapter of ” purchasing goods and paying for them later on”.

• Bayhaqi in “Major” (9/118), a correct Hadith.

• “The Beginning and the End” by Ibn Katheer (4/301), a Mursal Hadith. See: “Weak series” (1163).

• Bukhari (2913), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Leaving the Imam at noon, and lying under the shades of trees.”, and Muslim (843) chapter of “Fear prayer”.

• Muslim (868) book of Friday, chapter of “Prayer and sermon mitigation”.

• “The Beginning and the End” (3/314).

• “Saheeh Bukhari” (3045) Book of Jihad, chapter of “Can a man be imprisoned, and praying before getting killed.

• “Signs of Prophecy” Bayhaqi (3/333), and “The Beginning and the End” (4/69).

• “The Beginning and the End” (4/270).

• “The Beginning and the End” (5/51).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (11/607), a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/233), “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani in “The Small” and “The Middle”, and its narrators are trustworthy, however Muhammad ibn Abi Yahya did not narrate from the companions, and thus is a Mursal Hadith.

• “Muwatta” (2/719), a Mursal Hadith narrated from Sa’ed from Omar.

• Abdul Razzaq “The classified” (11/326) a correct Hadith.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (4/250),” Attabarani in “The Enormous” and his narrators are trustworthy.

• Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2426).

• Bukhari (2356) Book of Musaqah, chapter of “Debating over a well and arbitration”, and Muslim (138), “The stern warning for whoever takes the rights of Muslim with a falsified testimony”

• Abu Naim in “Ornament” (4/140), and Ali bin Abdullah bin Muawiya, see his translation in “The Tongue”.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/240) a correct Hadith.

• “Dictionary” Ibn Almqre (p 412).

• “Series of Eloquence” by Ibn Jarir. (4/265)

• “The West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 50).

• Muslim (1731), chapter of “The Imam assigning a prince for delegations and his commandments.”

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/246).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/577).

• Tirmidhi (1548) Book of biographies, chapter of “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”. Tirmidhi said, “Narrated from Burayda, Nu’man bin Muqren, Ibn Umar, and Ibn Abbas, and Salman bin Hasan’s Hadith is a hassan Hadith which we know only from the Hadith of ‘Ata’ ibn Sa’eb, and I heard Muhammad say, ‘Abu Albkhteri was born after Salman and Ali died.

• Haythami said in “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/553), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Middle”, and Othman bin Yahya Alkerksana, and his narrators are trustworthy”.

• Haythami said, “Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Ya’la, and Tabaraani, and one of its narrators are trustworthy, “Majma az-Zawa’ed” (5/552), and “Athafe al-Khira” (6/331).

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/107) a weak Hadith as Bayhaqi said.

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/557), “Narrated by Attabarani, and Yahya bin Abdulhamid Alhmona, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/561), “Narrated by Attabarani”, A Hasan Hadith wich Haythami mentioned in “Maima az-Zawaa’id”, chapter of “Calling people to Islam before fighting them”.

• Bukhari (314) and (315) Book of Jihad, chapter of “The killing of women and children in battle”, and Muslim (1744), chapter of “The prohibition of the killing of women and children in battle”.

• “High Demands” (2/149), narrated by Isaac, and Busayri said, “Narrated by Ahmad, and his narrators are trustworthy”.”Athafe al-Khira” (6/377).

• “High Demands” (2/150), narrated by Abu Ya’la (13/414), Ibn Wahb, and Ibn Lahee’ah a, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Abu Ali (4/422), a weak Hadith narrated by Ikrima, and Dawood Bin Husain, and Ismail ibn Abi Uys, who is known for his weak narrations.

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (1/341).

• Ibn Hibbaan in “Saheeh” (13/320). And Haythami said in “Majma” (6/444), “Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani and his narrators are trustworthy”.

• Abu Dawood (2613), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Calling non-Muslims to Islam”, a weak Hadith narrated by Khalid bin Alfazer, as Ibn Hajar said in “Attahzeeb”.

• Abu Dawood (2669), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The killing of women”, and Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2842), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Raids and the killing of women and boys”, a correct Hadith. And Ibn Majah in “Sunan” (2842), Book of Jihad, chapter of “Raids and the killing of women and boys”

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/240) a correct Hadith.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/484), a correct Hadith, narrated by Zaid, through Abu Bakr, and Abu Hurayrah, and Zaid ibn Thabit.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified”(6/484) narrated by Laith ibn Abi Salim, who is known for his inaccurate narrations.

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/483).

• Ibn Abi Shaybah in “The Classified” (6/484), a correct Hadith.

• “High Demands” (2/174), an elevated Hadith narrated by Ibn Abu Omar, Abu Ya’la Bin Umaya, Tha’laba ibn al-Hakam, and Zaid bin Khalid al-Juhani, see: “Athafe al-Khira” (6/390).

• “High Demands” (2/174), a Mursal Hadith narrated by al-Harith, and Lahee’ah. See “Athafe al-Khira” (6/391).

• Haythami said in “Majma” (6/86), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Small” and “The Enormous”.

• Sa’ed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Abu Salamah, and Umar ibn Abi Salamah from Omar, an interrupted Hadith as Bukhari said.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Musa bin Obeida, who is known for his weak narrations. See his biography in “Attahzeeb and Attakreeb” (10/318).

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a Hasan Hadith narrated by Abu Shihab, Abed Rabbo Ben Nafi Kanani, and Abu Muawiya.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/231), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), narrated by Ibn Suraqa, see his biography in “The Amendment” by Ibn Abi Hatim.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Saeed Bin Mansour in “Sunan” (2/233), a correct Hadith.

• Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (8/194), a correct Hadith as Ibn Hajar said in his book “The Habeer Summery” (4/122).

• Abu Obeid in “Funds” (48), and Ibn al-Qayyim in “The verdicts of treaty-makers” (40).

• Haythami said in “Majma” (5/635), “Narrated by Attabarani in “The Middle”, and Abdullah bin Saleh, and the rest of its narrators are trustworthy, however it has some weak aspects”.

• Shafi’i in “Musnad” (1/344), and Daaraqutni in “Sunan” (3/147), a weak Hadith narrated by Abi al-Janoob.

• “Athafe al-Khira” (7/11), narrated by Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah, and Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/198).

• “Arabs’ Tongue” (2/489), House of Thought.

• “Islamic Tolerance”, by Dr. Ali Juma Mohammed, piety website.

• Shaykh Abu Abdullah Abdul Rahman bin Nasser Al-Saadi, owner of the famous classifications and interpretations, most notably, “The interpretation of the words of Al-Karim Ar-Rahman.” See his biography in the book “The Life of a Figure”, Attaiar House, Qassim (437)

• “”The Interpretation of the words of Al-Karim al-Mannan” (1/305).

• “Fath al-Baari” (10/440).

• Hafiz Ismail bin Omar bin Katheer al-Qurashi ad-Damashqi, owner of the famous classifications, such as “The Beginning and the End”, “The Interpretation of the Great Quran”, and “Shortcut to Modern Science”, died in 774. See his biography in “Underlying Gems” (1 / 373).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/781).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (3/207).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (1/416).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yousuf (146), and “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 66).

• “The History of nations and kings” (2/538).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 76)

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 67)

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 124).

• “The Encyclopedia on the Tolerance of Islam” (1/431).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• “Nawawi’s Explanation of Sahih Muslim” (12/7).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/341).

• The book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 94).

• “Differences” (3/14).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. See: “Ibn Abidin’s Footnotes” (4/171), House of Thought.

• Ahmad in his “Musnad” (3/135) , narrated by Anas.

• “Sahih Muslim” (1738), Book of Jihad, chapter of “The prohibition of treachery”, narrated by Abu Sa’eed.

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• “Fath al-Baari” (6/280).

• “The Encyclopedia on the Tolerance of Islam “(336), by Mohammed Sadiq Arjun.

• “The Correct Answer” (1/312).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 62).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/140)

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/146).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/304).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/306).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/352).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/421).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”.

• The book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 95).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 195)

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/141).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/338).

• “Milestone Sunan” (2/326).

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/301).

• “The Employment of non-Muslims” (p. 249).

• “The spirit of Meanings” (15/297), “The Employment of non-Muslims”(p. 341).

• “Total fatwas” (4/115).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/601).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/638).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/639).

• “Fath al-Baari” (5/352).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 150).

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran”, (4/142).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 154).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 152).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 153).

• See the book “and argue with them in a way that is best” (p. 94).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 289).

• “Differences” (3/15). And “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 58)

• “The Interpretation of the Great Quran” (2/45).

• See “The Beginning and the End” (12/323).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. Narrated by Bayhaqi in “Sunan” (9/205).

• “West’s tolerance with Muslims – a critical study” (p. 50).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/246).

• “The History of Nations and kings” (2/557).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers” (p. 15).

• “The Beginning and the End (7/98).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/422).

• “Zaad al-Ma’ad” (3/613).

• Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Bakr al-Ansari Khazraji Qurtubi, an interpreter who died in 671, See his biography in “Nafh al-Ta’eb” (2/685), by Ibn Mqr’e.

• “The collection of the Verdicts of the Quran” (8/101).

• “Provisions of treaty-makers”

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 126).

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 144).

• Egyptian Fatwa website, “Islam’s tolerance with non-Muslims”. Narrated

• “Islamic Tax” Abu Yusuf (p. 139).

• “Differences” (3/14) and “West’s Tolerance with Muslims – Critical Study) (74).

• “Funds” by Abu Obeid (140 pp.), and “West’s Tolerance with Muslims – Critical Study” (74).