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Islam’s Tolerance with non-Muslims

All praise is to Allah, Thou we worship, Thou we seek for forgiveness and refuge from our sins. No one will guide whom Allah sends astray, and no one will mislead whomever Allah guides. And I bear witness that there is no deity but, Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. There is […]

Islam’s Tolerance in interacting with non-Muslims

Introduction Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the Forgiving, the Merciful, and peace be upon the prophet and his followers to the Day of Resurrection. Tolerance refers to lenience and compassion, as Ibn Atheer said: ‘Tolerance is lenience’ El-Firozabadi said: ‘To be tolerant means to be lenient’ (1), and tolerance is a form […]

Islam’s Moderation

All praise be to Allah alone, and peace and blessings be upon the Prophet. Moderation is that which is just, righteousness, and beautiful, as Allah has said: ‘We have made you a middle nation’ (Al baqara : 143); this is interpreted as being morally upright. Al Maraghi’s understanding of this, may Allah have mercy on […]


Christian Bosnia During the sixth and seventh centuries CE, Slavic peoples had been populating the mountainous country in the western Balkans which, as early as 753, was being referred to as Bosnia. Between the 12th and 15th centuries, after having endured several hundred years of domination by Croatia, Serb principalities, and the Byzantine Empire, an […]


Land of Albania! where Iskander rose, Theme of the young, and beacon of the wise, And he his name-sake, whose oft-battled foes Shrunk from his deeds of chivalrous emprize: Land of Albania! let me bend mine eyes On thee, though rugged nurse of savage men! The cross descends, thy minarets arise, And the pale crescent […]

The Karachay-Balkar

As pressure from invading Kipchaks and other Altaic nomads during the 10th to 14th centuries forced the Alans to head south towards the Caucasus highlands, some tribes inevitably became separated from the centralised Alan authority. While the bulk of Alans established themselves in the strategically all-important central trans-Caucasus region, roughly corresponding to today’s North and […]

Ossetians (Alans)

The Ossetians are the descendants of the ancient Alans (Алан), a prominent tribe from the warlike Sarmatian horsemen of Classical Antiquity. The Hollywood production, King Arthur, starring British actor, Clive Owen, casts Arthur’s knights as Sarmatian warriors conscripted in the service of the Roman Empire. Another legend, that of the Amazon warrior women, is based […]